Evaluation of urban topography–biotope–population density relations for Istanbul–Beşiktaş urban landscape using AHP

  • Gül Aslı Aksu
  • Nigar Küçük


The analytical evaluation of urban landscapes is a time-consuming and difficult process as it concerns a large number of components in a complex network of interactions. Studies are either very general and superficial, or unidirectional and in-depth based on certain indicators. For this reason, suitability analyses based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP) create an appropriate framework for evaluating multicomponential urban landscapes systematically. The purpose of this research is to establish an important framework for sustainable landscape planning decisions by comparing it with the artificial topography, population density and biotope characteristics evaluated in the context of microclimatic occurrences in urban landscapes. For this purpose, artificial topography was analyzed by means of AHP according to slope–aspect and elevation criteria. These criteria (slope–aspect–elevation) used to evaluate the artificial topography were preferred for having the potential to represent microclimatic formations such as wind corridor, shading and runoff that affect the decisions on urban landscape planning and management significantly. Artificial topography suitability map obtained was compared to biotope types and population density in research area. In regions with high population density topography compliance is low. In appropriate areas, the building and park biotopes attract attention. These findings indicate that green roof-façade systems should be introduced in such areas and ecological balances should be considered in park design. A balanced distribution of building stock gardens influenced the quality of life positively. It was seen that suitability of topography addressed with regard to life quality and microclimatic comfort is inversely proportional to population density. It was determined by evaluating the relationship of artificial topography with urban biotopes that the predominant biotopes in the areas with high suitability of topography such as garden and grove have high ecological value. Artificial surfaces, such as roads and buildings, gain weight in the areas with high population density and unsuitable urban topography. Considering all of these findings, it was concluded that artificial urban topography is an important indicator for interpreting the relationship with habitat-population density and taking decisions on planning and management of urban landscapes which are in a rapid transformation process.


Urban landscape planning Biotope Artificial urban topography Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) Suitability analysis Population density 



This study was carried out in the scope of the project called “Istanbul-Besiktas District an Ecological Planning Approach for an Urban Landscape Plan and Implementation Strategy (114O341-TOVAG-TUBITAK)” project funded by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK). We are grateful to TUBITAK for their support.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and DesignIstanbul Commerce UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Landscape Architecture, Institute of SciencesIstanbul UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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