The photodegradation and mineralization efficiency (technical evaluation) and process economics (economic evaluation) are important in selection of a particular type of TiO2 for large-scale commercial applications involving heterogeneous photocatalysis. In this paper, techno-economic evaluation of indigenous anatase TiO2 (ana-TiO2) and aeroxide p25 TiO2 (p25-TiO2) photocatalyst for heterogeneous photocatalysis of basic yellow 28 (BY28) dye solution is studied. The characterization of photocatalysts was done through X-ray diffraction, Tauc’s plot, and point of zero charge. The important parameters related to heterogeneous photocatalytic process like photocatalyst loading, UV intensity, and A/V (area-to-volume) ratio were studied and optimized as per ability of photocatalyst for the full utilization of light illumination. BY28 dye degradation depicted pseudo-first-order kinetics under UV radiations and solar light. Electric energy per order and collector area per order was also evaluated for the two systems. Finally, economic evaluation of these two types of TiO2 was done in terms of total material and energy cost involved for 90% removal of BY28 dye from 1 m3 solution under UV radiations and solar light. Ana-TiO2 found to be more economical than p25-TiO2 in terms of operating cost involved for photocatalytic degradation of BY28 dye. Alternatively, photocatalytic unit using p25-TiO2 showed higher treatment capacity as compared to ana-TiO2 due to higher photodegradation and mineralization efficiency of the former. Finally, a method for selection of particular type of TiO2 (p25-TiO2 or ana-TiO2) for a photocatalytic unit is suggested by considering volumetric capacity of photocatlytic unit, volume of effluent generated per day by the dyeing unit, photodegradation efficiency of TiO2, and process economics. This study would be useful for the decision making authorities in profitable selection of particular type of TiO2 for treating given volume of effluent.
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The facilities provided by Energy Research Centre (ERC) for carrying out the research work are duly acknowledged. We also acknowledge DST-PURSE and TEQIP-II grant in providing chemicals and analysis. The support of Central Instrumentation Laboratory (CIL), Punjab University, for providing instrument facilities is highly acknowledged. The authors are extremely grateful to dyeing unit of Vardhman Spinning and General Mills, Ludhiana, for providing the sample of dye (basic yellow 28).
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Chawla, P., Sharma, S.K. & Toor, A.P. Techno-economic evaluation of anatase and p25 TiO2 for treatment basic yellow 28 dye solution through heterogeneous photocatalysis. Environ Dev Sustain 22, 231–249 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-018-0194-z
- Collector area per order
- Electric energy per order
- Operating cost
- Techno-economic evaluation
- Cost-effective treatment