Advertisement

Environment, Development and Sustainability

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 201–215 | Cite as

Enhancing sustainable sanitation through capacity building and rural sanitation marketing in Malawi

  • Victor KasuloEmail author
  • Rochelle Holm
  • Mavuto Tembo
  • Wales Singini
  • Joshua Mchenga
Article
  • 120 Downloads

Abstract

The Sustainable Development Goals on water and sanitation offer an opportunity for Malawi to examine new approaches to improving and sustaining rural household sanitation coverage by the year 2030. This paper assessed the impact of training rural pit latrine masons as sanitation entrepreneurs and the role of sanitation marketing. The paper used a tracer study of 76 masons from 15 districts in Malawi trained by Mzuzu University under a United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Malawi programme promoting the corbelled pit latrine design. The results from the study showed that pit latrines were being built by some masons, but that not all programme trainees had used their new knowledge. Masons were part-time and informal providers. Our results indicate a need to scale-up and train more pit latrine masons and the necessity to enhance the sanitation marketing programme component of the training. The registration of masons as sanitation providers, the identification of novel financing mechanisms appropriate for the masons and improved collaboration are also recommended.

Keywords

Corbelled latrine Developing countries Malawi Sanitation marketing Sanitation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper is a part of outputs from a Rural Sanitation Marketing Project funded by United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Malawi. UNICEF Malawi has reviewed this paper.

References

  1. Bongartz, P., Vernon, N., & Fox, J. (Eds.). (2016). Sustainable sanitation for all: Experiences, challenges, and innovations. Rugby: Practical Action Publishing.Google Scholar
  2. Cairncross, S. (2004). The case for marketing sanitation. Washington, DC: WSP Field Note, Water and Sanitation Program.Google Scholar
  3. Chidya, R. C. G., Holm, R. H., Tembo, M., Cole, B., Workneh, P., & Kanyama, J. (2016). Testing methods for new pit latrine designs in rural and peri-urban areas of Malawi where conventional testing is difficult to employ. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology,2, 726–732.Google Scholar
  4. Cole, B., Pinfold, J., Ho, G., & Anda, M. (2012). Investigating the dynamic interactions between supply and demand for rural sanitation, Malawi. Journal of Water Sanitation & Hygiene for Development,02(4), 266–278.  https://doi.org/10.2166/washdev.2012.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cole, B., Pinforld, J., Ho, G., & Anda, M. (2014). Exploring the methodology of participatory design to create appropriate sanitation technologies in rural Malawi. Journal of Water Sanitation & Hygiene for Development,04(1), 51–61.  https://doi.org/10.2166/washdev.2013.166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Devine, J., & Kullman, C. (2011). Introductory guide to sanitation marketing. Washington, DC: World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/17352. Accessed April 5, 2016.
  7. Holm, R., Kasulo, V., & Wanda, E. (2015). Why financial lending institutions are not willing to provide services to the private sector for rural sanitation and hygiene (Malawi). Sustainable Sanitation Practice,24, 9–15.Google Scholar
  8. Holm, R., Tembo, M., Njera, D., Kasulo, V., Malota, M., Chipeta, W., et al. (2016). Adopters and non-adopters of low-cost household latrines in 15 districts in Malawi. Sustainability,8(10), 917.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su8100917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jenkins, M. W., & Scott, B. (2007). Behavioral indicators of household decision-making and demand for sanitation and potential gains from social marketing in Ghana. Social Science and Medicine,64(12), 2427–2442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jenkins, M. W., & Sugden, S. (2006). Rethinking sanitation: Lessons and innovation for sustainability and success in the New Millennium. Human Development Occasional Papers (1992–2007) http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/rethinking-sanitation-lessons-and-innovation-sustainability-and-success-new-millennium. Accessed April 6, 2016.
  11. Kappauf, L. (2011). Opportunities and constraints for more sustainable sanitation through sanitation marketing in Malawi. M.Sc. Thesis, Water Engineering and Development Centre, Department of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University (UK). http://www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/1382. Accessed March 27, 2016.
  12. Kar, K., & Chambers, R. (2008). Handbook on community-led total sanitation. Plan International (UK) and Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex (UK). http://www.ids.ac.uk/publication/handbook-on-community-led-total-sanitation. Accessed April 4, 2016.
  13. Kumwenda, S., Msefula, C., Kadewa, W., Ngwira, B., Morse, T., & Ensink, J. H. J. (2016). Knowledge, attitudes and practices on use of Fossa Alternas and double vault urine diverting dry (DVUDD) latrines in Malawi. Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development,6(4), 555–568.  https://doi.org/10.2166/washdev.2016.177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Malawi Government. (2008). National sanitation policy. Lilongwe: Ministry of Irrigation and Water Development.Google Scholar
  15. Malawi Government. (2011). Open defecation free (ODF) Malawi strategy. Lilongwe: Ministry of Irrigation and Water Development.Google Scholar
  16. Malawi Government. (2012). Integrated household survey 2010–2011. Household socio-economic characteristics report. Zomba: National Statistical Office.Google Scholar
  17. Munkhondia, T. (2013). On the road to sustainable sanitation: An overview of lessons learned in a sanitation programme in Malawi. Waterlines,32(1), 50–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Murta, J. C. D., Willets, J. R. M., & Triwahyndi, W. (2016). Sanitation enterprise in rural Indonesia: A closer look. Environment, Development and Sustainability.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-016-9883-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nhlema, M., Sauer, J., Sugden, S., & Millsopp, F. (2014). Unleash the sanitation marketplace. In P. Cross & Y. Coombes (Eds.), Sanitation and hygiene in Africa: Where do we stand? Analysis from the AfricaSan conference, Kigali, Rwanda (pp. 95–101). London: IWA Publishing.Google Scholar
  20. Rosenboom, J. W., Jacks, C., Phyrum, K., Roberts, M., & Baker, T. (2011). Sanitation marketing in Cambodia. Waterlines,30(1), 21–40.  https://doi.org/10.3362/1756-3488.2011.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sijbesma, C., Truong, T. X., & Devine, J. (2010). Case study on sustainability of rural sanitation marketing in Vietnam. Water and Sanitation Program, Washington, DC and IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, The Hague. https://www.unicef.org/wash/files/Sijbesma_Truong_Devine_2010a.pdf. Accessed June 18, 2017.
  22. UNICEF Malawi. (2015). WASH field note: Going beyond ODF: Combining sanitation marketing with participatory approaches to sustain ODF communities in Malawi. www.unicef.org/esaro/WASH-Field-Malawi-low-res.pdf. Accessed April 6, 2016.
  23. United Nations. (2015). Transforming our world: The 2030 Agenda for sustainable development. A/RES/70/1. http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals. Accessed April 5, 2016.
  24. USAID HIP (Hygiene Improvement Project). (2010). Sanitation marketing for managers: guidance and tools for program development. United States Agency for International Development Hygiene Improvement Project: Washington, DC. Accessed April 5, 2016.Google Scholar
  25. WHO & UNICEF (World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund). (2017). Progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene: 2017 update and SDG baselines. Geneva. https://www.unicef.org/publications/index_96611.html. Accessed July 19, 2017.
  26. World Bank. (2009). Tanzania—Market research assessment in rural Tanzania for new approaches to stimulate and scale up sanitation demand and supply. Water and Sanitation Program. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Directorate of ResearchMzuzu UniversityMzuzu 2Malawi
  2. 2.Centre of Excellence in Water and SanitationMzuzu UniversityMzuzu 2Malawi
  3. 3.Department of Land ManagementMzuzu UniversityMzuzu 2Malawi
  4. 4.Department of FisheriesMzuzu UniversityMzuzu 2Malawi

Personalised recommendations