Visualization of 2002 storm surge along the coast of Dhofar, case study of Oman

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One of the greatest concerns for the Omani coastal infrastructure and developmental planning is the impacts of sea level rise (SLR) flooding in association with the extreme storm events. This paper argues that if coastal infrastructure in Oman is to be resilient, it is necessary to measure the extent of storm surge inundation effects to provide a better understanding for future coastal infrastructural development and planning. A hydrodynamic model, 3Di, developed by TU-Delft, the Netherlands, is used to simulate the May 9–11, 2002 storm surge inundation of Dhofar’s coast in Oman. The model simulation is based on 60-min-interval water-level data for a 72-h, extreme storm event, coupled with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.41 m SLR for different inundation scenarios. 3Di’s results included a series of inundated areas with 1-h-interval time steps that provided spatial inundation extents and water depth at every hour of an event. The study reveals that with SLR at 1.0 m and at 1.41 m, in terms of coastal development and infrastructure, it is largely roads that are vulnerable. This study provides a database to allow planners and decision makers to make informed decisions regarding the location of future infrastructure as a path toward resiliency in future coastal developmental and infrastructural planning in Oman.

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    Virtual station is a pseudo-station that records simulated water levels and calculates the mean water level used to calibrate 3Di model.


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The data of this research were provided by National Survey Authority and Oman National Hydrographic Office. We are thankful to their help and assistance.

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Correspondence to Amna Al Ruheili.

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Al Ruheili, A., Radke, J. Visualization of 2002 storm surge along the coast of Dhofar, case study of Oman. Environ Dev Sustain 22, 501–517 (2020).

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  • SLR
  • Storm surge
  • Dhofar
  • Infrastructure vulnerability