Advertisement

Environment, Development and Sustainability

, Volume 20, Supplement 1, pp 83–108 | Cite as

Empirical assessment of sustainable energy markets in the EU-28

  • María Teresa García-Álvarez
  • Isabel Soares
Article

Abstract

Sustainable consumption and production policies have been developed by the EU as part of the United Nations 10-year framework programme on sustainable consumption and production. In this context, the study of energy consumption and production patterns might be especially relevant as the importance of energy input. This paper develops the Sustainable Energy Market Aggregated Index in the EU-28 that provides information about the achieved effects of sustainable consumption and production policies on energy efficiency, energy dependence, generation mix based on clean production technologies and competitive market structure. The results suggest that Denmark, Sweden, UK, Italy, the Netherlands have the better scores. Reinforcing measures are proposed for member states with the lowest results (Slovakia, Luxembourg, Estonia, Czech Republic and Belgium) in order to move towards more competitive energy markets.

Keywords

Energy markets Sustainable development Energy consumption patterns Energy production patterns 

References

  1. Babcicky, P. (2012). Rethinking the foundations of sustainability measurement: The Limitations of the Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI). Social Indicators Research, 113, 133–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bell, S., & Morse, S. (2005). Sustainability indicators: Measuring the immeasurable. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  3. Bolcárová, P., & Kološta, S. (2015). Assessment of sustainable development in the EU 27 using aggregated SD index. Ecological Indicators, 48, 699–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bond, A., Morrison-Saunders, A., & Pope, J. (2012). Sustainability assessment: The state of the art. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 30, 53–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Büchner, J., Frenjen, R., Nikogosian, V., & Wolak, F. A. (2013). White paper on a sustainable design of the electricity market. Challenges from renewable energies and guidelines for a sustainable market design. Bonn: E-Bridge and UMS Group.Google Scholar
  6. Büchner, J., & Frenken, R. (2013). Towards a sustainable market model (Why there is a need for a modified market model). Arnhem: Tennet.Google Scholar
  7. Buclet, N., & Lazarevic, D. (2015). Principles for sustainability: The need to shift to a sustainable conventional regime. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 17(1), 83–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Caeiro, S., Ramos, T. B., & Huisingh, D. (2012). Procedures and criteria to develop and evaluate household sustainable consumption indicators. Journal of Cleaner Production, 27, 72–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ciegis, R., Ramanauskiene, J., & Startiene, G. (2015). Theoretical reasoning of the use of indicators and indices for sustainable development assessment. Engineering Economics, 63(4), 33–40.Google Scholar
  10. Commission, European. (2014a). Member State’s Energy Dependence: An Indicator-Based assessment. Ocassional Papers 196. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  11. Commission, European. (2014b). EU Energy markets in 2014. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  12. Council of the European Union. (2006a). Action plan for energy efficiency: Realising the potential COM/2006/0545 final. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  13. Council of the European Union. (2006b). Review of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy (EU SDS)—Renewed Strategy. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  14. Council of the European Union. (2010). Energy 2020: A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy. COM(2010) 639. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  15. Council of the European Union. (2011a). A resource-efficient Europe. COM (2011) 571 final. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  16. Council of the European Union. (2011b). European Efficiency Plan. COM(2014) 0109. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  17. Council of the European Union. (2014a). European Energy Security Strategy. COM(2014) 0330. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  18. Council of the European Union. (2014b). Energy Roadmap 2050. COM(2011) 0885 final. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  19. Council of the European Union. (2014c). A policy framework for climate and energy in the period from 2020 to 2030. COM(2014) 015 final. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  20. Council of the European Union. (2014d). European Efficiency Communication. COM(2014) 520 final. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  21. Council of the European Union. (2015). Redesigning the EU’s energy market. COM(2015) 240 final. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  22. Dahl, A. L. (2012). Achievements and gaps in indicators for sustainability. Ecologic Indicators, 17, 14–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eco-innovation Observatory. (2014). Eco-innovation in member states. Belgium: Eco-innovation Observatory.Google Scholar
  24. Ecologic Institute. (2015). Assessment of climate change policies as part of the European semester. Berlin: Ecologic Institute.Google Scholar
  25. European Commission. (2006). Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on energy end-use efficiency and energy services and repealing Council Directive 93/76/EE. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  26. European Commission. (2009a). Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  27. European Commission. (2009b). Directive 2009/72/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity and repealing Directive 2003/54/EC. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  28. European Commission. (2009c). Directive 2009/73/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 concerning common rules for the internal market in gas and repealing Directive 2003/54/EC. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  29. European Commission. (2011). Eco-innovation Action Plan. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  30. European Commission. (2015). Report from The Commission to the European Parliament and the Council Assessment of the progress made by member states towards the national energy efficiency targets for 2020 and towards the implementation of the Energy Efficiency Directive 2012/27/EU as required by Article 24 (3) of Energy Efficiency Directive 2012/27/EU. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  31. European Environment Agency. (2011). Resource efficiency in Europe. Policies and approaches in 31 EEA member states and cooperating countries. Copenhagen: European Environment Agency.Google Scholar
  32. European Environment Agency. (2015). The European environment state and Outlook 2015. Resource efficiency and the low-carbon economy. Copenhagen: European Environment Agency.Google Scholar
  33. Evans, A., Strezov, V., & Evans, T. J. (2009). Assessment of sustainability indicators for renewable energy technologies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13(5), 1082–1088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Franco, A., & Salza, P. (2011). RETRACTED ARTICLE: Perspectives for the long-term penetration of new renewables in complex energy systems: the Italian scenario. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 13(2), 309–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gibson, R. B. (2005). Sustainability assessment: Criteria and processes. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  36. Goldrath, T., Ayalon, O., & Shechter, M. (2015). A combined sustainability index for electricity efficiency measures. Energy Policy, 86, 574–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Iddrisu, I., & Bhattacharyya, S. C. (2015). Sustainable Energy Development Index: A multi-dimensional indicator for measuring sustainable energy development. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Review, 50, 513–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Institute, Ecologic. (2014). Assessment of climate change policies in the context of the European Semester. Berlin: Ecologic Institute.Google Scholar
  39. JRC. (2004). Dashboard of sustainability. http://esl.jrc.it/envind/dashbrds.htm. Accessed 4 May 2016.
  40. Kocsis, V., & Hof, B. (2016). Energy policy evaluation in practice: The case of production subsidies and DEN-B in the Netherlands. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 18(5), 1433–1455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kumar, P., Ahmed, F., Singh, R. K., & Sinha, P. (2017). Determination of hierarchical relationships among sustainable development goals using interpretive structural modeling. Environment, Development and Sustainability.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-017-9981-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. La Rovere, E. L., Soares, J. B., Oliveira, L. B., & Lauria, T. (2010). Sustainable expansion of electricity sector: Sustainability indicators as an instrument to support decision making. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(1), 422–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Liobikienė, G., & Mandravickaitė, J. (2013). Convergence of new members of the EU: Changes in household consumption expenditure structure regarding environmental impact during the prosperous period. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 15(2), 407–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Loh, J. (Ed.). (2002). Living Planet Report 2002. Gland: World Wildlife Fund.Google Scholar
  45. Mejía-Dugand, S., Hjelm, O., & Baas, L. (2017). Public utility companies in liberalized markets–The impact of management models on local and regional sustainability. Utilities Policy, 49, 137–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Observatory, Eco-innovation. (2015). Eco-innovation in member states. Belgium: Eco-innovation Observatory.Google Scholar
  47. Odyssee. (2012). Energy efficiency in the EUCountry profiles and national reports. http://www.odyssee-indicators.org/publications/country_profiles.php. Accessed 3 October 2016.
  48. OECD. (2008). Promoting sustainable consumption. Good practices in OECD countries. Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.Google Scholar
  49. Pintér, L., Hardi, P., Martinuzzi, A., Hall, J., & Bellagio, P. (2012). STAMP: Principles for sustainability assessment and measurement. Ecologic Indicators, 17, 20–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Prescott-Allen, R. (2001). The wellbeing of nations. A country-by-country index of quality of life and the environment. Ottawa: Island Press.Google Scholar
  51. Singh, R. K., Murty, H. R., Gupta, S. K., & Dikshit, A. K. (2012). An overview of sustainability assessment methodologies. Ecological Indicators, 15(1), 281–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Szulecki, K., Fischer, S., Gullberg, A. T., & Sartor, O. (2015). Giving shape to the energy union: Evolution, national expectations and implications for EU energy and climate governance. National expectations and implications for EU energy and climate governance (June 17, 2015).Google Scholar
  53. United Nations. (2006). Sustainable consumption and production: Energy and industry. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  54. United Nations. (2012). The future we want. United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development. Rio + 20.Google Scholar
  55. United Nations Development Programme. (2008). Human development indices—A statistical update. New York: United Nations Development Programme.Google Scholar
  56. United Nations Environment Programme. (2015). Sustainable consumption and production indicators for the future SDGs. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  57. Waas, T., Hugé, J., Block, T., Wright, T., Benitez-Capistros, F., & Verbruggen, A. (2014). Sustainability assessment and indicators: Tools in a decision-making strategy for sustainable development. Sustainability, 6(9), 5512–5534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wackernagel, M., & Rees, W. (2007). Our ecological footprint—Reducing human impact on the earth. Gabriola Island: New Society Publishers.Google Scholar
  59. World Economic Forum. (2002). Environmental sustainability index. An initiative of the global leaders of tomorrow environment task force. World Economic Forum, Annual Meeting.Google Scholar
  60. Zaccaï, E. (2008). Assessing the role of consumers in sustainable product policies. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 10(1), 51–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Business, Faculty of Economics and BusinessUniversity of A CorunaLa CoruñaSpain
  2. 2.Research Centre in Economics and Finance (CEFUP) and Faculty of EconomicsUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal

Personalised recommendations