Technical and environmental efficiency of eco-friendly rice production in the upstream region of the Vietnamese Mekong delta
- 35 Downloads
Although public policy makers, farmers, and agricultural experts have invested considerable efforts to promote environmentally friendly rice production methods, the adoption of these practices is quite low in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta. One explanation for this is an underestimation of the environmental and economic values of these practices. The present study aimed at estimating environmental and technical efficiencies for all methods of rice production and then comparing each method in terms of efficiencies and economic benefits. Survey data included responses from farmers who used either eco-friendly or conventional rice cultivation methods. Latent class stochastic frontier analysis shows that the average technical efficiency across all methods was 85.02% and environmental efficiency across all methods was 22.58%. Among individual methods, floating rice had the highest technical and environmental efficiency scores. Ecologically engineered rice had the lowest economic and environmental performance. The average environmental efficiency of conventional rice production was 16.25%, which is significantly higher than that of ecologically engineered rice, large-scale rice, and GlobalGAP rice. The results indicate considerable overuse of agrochemical inputs and also point to other specific factors of production that influence these efficiencies. Several public policy and agricultural management recommendations are derived from the study.
KeywordsEnvironmental efficiency Latent class stochastic frontier analysis Rice farming Sustainable agriculture
We would like to express our deep gratitude to all farmers in the study sites who provided valuable information for this study. We are also thankful to the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments on the manuscript. This study (ID number R11616) was funded by RONPAKU, JSPS.
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- Dung, N. H., & Dung, T. T. T. (1999). Economic and health consequences of pesticide use in paddy production in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh: Economy and environment program for Southeast Asia (EEPSEA).Google Scholar
- Greene, W. (2002). Alternative panel data estimators for stochastic frontier models. Unpublished manuscript (Septemebr 1, 2002), Department of Economics, New York University.Google Scholar
- GSO. (2014). Statistical yearbook of Vietnam. Ha Noi: Statistical Publishing House.Google Scholar
- GSO. (2015). Statistical yearbook of Vietnam. Ha Noi: Statistical Publishing House.Google Scholar
- Heong, K. L., & Yang, H. B. (Eds.). (2009). Planthoppers: New threats to the sustainability of intensive rice production systems in Asia. Los Baños: International Rice Research Institute.Google Scholar
- JICA. (2013). Agricultural transformation and food security 2040: ASEAN region with a focus on Vietnam, Indonesia, and Philippines, Vietnam Country Report. Japan International Cooperation Agency.Google Scholar
- Khai, H. V., & Yabe, M. (2011). Technical efficiency analysis of rice production in Vietnam. Journal of ISSAAS, 17(1), 135–146.Google Scholar
- Kolari, J., & Zardkoohi, A. (1995). Economies of scale and scope in commercial banks with different output mixes. Texas A and M working paper.Google Scholar
- Ma, W. (2016). The impact of agricultural cooperatives on the adoption of technologies and farm performance of apple farmers in China. Christian-Albrechts: Universität Kiel.Google Scholar
- Nhan, D. K., Be, N., & Trung, N. H. (2007). Water use and competition in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Challenges to sustainable development in the Mekong Delta: regional and national policy issues and research needs. The Sustainable Mekong Research Network, 143–188.Google Scholar
- Quach, T. X., & Kawaguchi, T. (2003). A study on the role and development of dairy cooperatives in Hanoi and Hochiminh city: A case study of Phudong and Tanxuan dairy cooperative. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture-Kyushu University (Japan).Google Scholar
- Quyen, L. C., & Vu, T. H. (2014). Composition of wild fish in floating rice in Vinh Phuoc and Luong An Tra communes, Tri Ton district, An Giang province in the flood season in 2014. Research Center for Rural Development, An Giang University.Google Scholar
- Tran, V. S. (2016). Towards successful implementation of Vietnamese national government climate change policy at the provincial and local farmer level. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Southern Cross University. Google Scholar
- Tu, H. V., & Yabe, M. (2015). Technical Efficiency of ecologically engineered rice production in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: Application of SFA. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research, 15(5), 13.Google Scholar
- Tu, V. H., Yabe, M., Trang, N. T., & Khai, H. V. (2015). Environmental efficiency of ecologically engineered rice production in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 60, 493–500.Google Scholar
- Vu, T. H., & Quyen, L. C. (2014). Biodiversity of plants in floating rice in Vinh Phuoc and Luong An Tra communes, Tri Ton district, An Giang province in the flood season in 2014. Research Center for Rural Development, An Giang University. Google Scholar
- Wedel, M., & Kamakura, W. A. (2012). Market segmentation: Conceptual and methodological foundations (Vol. 8). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar