Environment, Development and Sustainability

, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 1501–1519 | Cite as

Energy rating methodology for light-duty vehicles: geographical impact

  • Sara Marques
  • Luis Reis
  • João L. Afonso
  • Carla Silva
Article

Abstract

The aim of this paper was to describe a new energy dependency score methodology and its consequent application to cars sold in twelve regions: Europe (EU-28) and eleven specific countries worldwide (Australia, Brazil, China, India, Japan, Norway, Portugal, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and USA). This methodology was developed as a potential tool to inform consumers of their choice impact on the country’s economy. This methodology is based on primary energy assessments and origins for each energy pathway associated with a gasoline-, diesel-, natural gas (used for H2 production)- or electricity (balanced with country electricity mix)-powered vehicle. An energy dependency index was attributed to the best-case (100 % endogenous production) and worst-case (0 % endogenous production) scenarios and consequently weighted with vehicle fuel consumption. This enabled obtaining an energy dependency index (10–0). This index could be assigned to an environmental and social index to provide a sustainability index and therefore complement a road vehicle environmental rating system, providing a combined index rating. Internal combustion engine vehicles and hybrid vehicles (that have oil products as energy source) rate the lowest for almost all locations, with the exception of regions that are energy independent (Norway, Saudi Arabia or Russia). Electric vehicles rank higher when comparing to the other technologies analyzed for all locations in this study. The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle shows generally a rank in an intermediate place, except for Japan where it scores lower than all other technologies.

Keywords

Energy dependency score Light-duty vehicles Alternative technologies Countries energy balance Decision support 

Abbreviations

AU

Australia

BR

Brazil

BRICS

Acronym for an association of five major emerging economies Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa

CAFC

Corporate average fuel consumption

CD

Charge depleting

CH

China

CO2

Carbon dioxide

DGEG

Portuguese Energy and Geology Management Department (Direção Geral de Energia e Geologia)

CS

Charge sustaining

ECE

Urban driving cycles

EDI

Energy dependency index

EDF

Energy dependency factor

EPA

United States Environmental Protection Agency

EU

Europe

EUDC

Extra urban driving cycle

EV

Electric vehicle

FTP

Federal Test Procedure

FCHEV

Fuel cell hybrid vehicle

HEV

Hybrid vehicle

ICCT

International Council on Clean Transportation

ICEV

Internal combustion engine vehicle

IN

India

IUC

Circulation tax in Portugal

ISV

Vehicle acquisition tax in Portugal

JC08

Japanese driving cycle for emissions testing

JP

Japan

MTOE

Million tonnes of oil equivalent

NEDC

New European Driving Cycle

NW

Norway

OECD

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

OICA

International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers

PHEV

Plug-in hybrid vehicle

PT

Portugal

RU

Russia

S.AR

Saudi Arabia

S.AF

South Africa

TRIAD

Designation of Europe, Japan and USA used due to their impact in world economy

USA

United States

VAT

Value-added tax

Notes

Acknowledgments

Thanks are due to Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) for the first author Phd financial support (SFRH / BD / 73416 / 2010), the Project “Assessment and development of integrated systems for electric vehicles” (MIT-Pt/EDAM SMS/0030/2008), for the last author FCT investigator development grant Program Investigator FCT IF/00181/2012 and, finally, to the strategic program LAETA-UID/EMS/50022/2013 and IDL-UID/GEO/50019/2013.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IDMEC, Instituto Superior TécnicoUniversidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Centro Algoritmi, Department of Industrial ElectronicsUniversity of MinhoGuimarãesPortugal
  3. 3.Instituto Dom Luiz, Faculdade de CiênciasUniversidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal

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