Pesticide use among smallholder rice farmers in Tanzania
- 390 Downloads
In an interview study conducted among smallholder rice farmers in Rufiji, Tanzania coastal mainland, and in Cheju, Zanzibar, farmer’s pesticide use and risk awareness were assessed. The farmers generally lacked knowledge or possibilities to manage the pesticides as prescribed by the manufacturers. Few farmers knew what kind of pesticides they were using and had never seen the original packages, as pesticides were usually sold per weight or already diluted without labeling. Protective equipment was rarely used since they were not aware of risks associated with pesticides or did not know where to purchase protective gear. Only half of the farmers were aware of pesticides’ health hazards and few associated pesticides with environmental problems. The pesticide use was relatively low, but based on farmers’ pesticide handling and application practices, health risks were a major concern. Most farmers did not believe in successful rice cultivation without using pesticides to control pests. However, estimated yields did not differ between pesticide users or farmers using conventional methods or neem tree extract. To avoid negative effects on human health and the environment, the farmers need basic education and better assistance in their farming practices and pesticide management.
KeywordsHuman health Risk awareness Zanzibar Rufiji
We would like to thank N. Kautsky, A. Sjögren, and two anonymous referees for valuable comments on the manuscript, and Rose Mwaipopo for major input on the questionnaire and assisting us in Rufiji. The study would not have been possible to conduct without the help and cooperation of the respondents, Aisha Dallu, Rajab R. Mgongo, F. Sima, A. Kipalanga, and T. Porseryd assisting in the field. The study was funded by Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA).
- Department of Environment, Institute of Marine Sciences, Subcomission for Forestry, Subcomission for Fisheries and Integrated Planning Unit. (1996). Towards integrated management and sustainable development of Zanzibar’s coast. Findings and recommendations for an action strategy in the Chwaka bay-Paje area (p. 54), Rhode Island, ICAM, Zanzibar, USA.Google Scholar
- FAO, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. (2003). International code of conduct on the distribution and use of pesticides (revised version). Italy: Rome.Google Scholar
- FAOSTAT. (2008). http://faostat.fao.org. Accessed September 1, 2010.
- Hanshi, J. (2001). Use of pesticides and personal protective equipment by applicators in a Kenyan district. African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 11(2), 74–76.Google Scholar
- Institute of Marine Sciences of Zanzibar GIS Database. (2010). Area calculations performed by Dr. Christopher Muhando in GIS.Google Scholar
- Kohler, P. M., Roemer-Mahler, A., & Templeton, J. (2008). Summary of the fourth meeting of persistant organic pollutants review committee of the Stockholm convention: 13–17 October 2008. Earth Negotiations Bulletin, 15(161).Google Scholar
- Leveridge, Y. (1996). Pesticide poisoning in Costa Rica during 1996. Veterinary and Human Toxicology, 40, 42–44.Google Scholar
- Macha, M., Rwazo, A., & Mkalanga, H. (2001). Retail sale of pesticides in Tanzania: Occupational human health and safety considerations. African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 11, 40–42.Google Scholar
- MAFST (The United Republic of Tanzania) Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security. (2003). Participatory agricultural development and empowerment project (PADEP), resettlement policy framework.Google Scholar
- Matthews, G., Wiles, T., & Baleguel, P. (2003). A survey of pesticide application in Cameroon. Crop Protection, 22(5), 707–714.Google Scholar
- Mbakaya, C., Ohayo-Mitoko, G., Simwa, J., Ngowi, V. A. F., Maeda, D., Stephens, J., Mbabazi, M. (1996). A survey on the use of organochlorine, organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides in crop protection in East Africa. African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 6(2), 34–36.Google Scholar
- Mmochi, A. (2005). Chemodynamics of pesticide residues and metabolites in Zanzibar coastal marine environment. PhD Thesis, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.Google Scholar
- Mmochi, A. J., & Mberek, R. S. (1998). Trends in the types, amounts, and toxicity of pesticides used in Tanzania: Efforts to control pesticide pollution in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Ambio, 27(8), 669–676.Google Scholar
- Mohammed, S. M. (1990). Pollution by industry and other users of chemicals. Zanzibar Environmental Study Series (Vol. 2).Google Scholar
- Mwevura, H. (2007). Chemodynamics of pesticide residues and other persistent organic pollutants within the Rufiji delta and dolphins from the coastal waters of Zanzibar. PhD thesis, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.Google Scholar
- NBS, National Bureau of Statistics, Tanzania. (2002). http://www.nbs.go.tz/. Accessed July 5, 2010.
- Ngowi, V. A. F. (2002). Health impact of exposure to pesticides in agriculture in Tanzania. PhD Thesis, University of Tampere, Finland.Google Scholar
- Ngowi, V. A. F., Maeda, D., Wesseling, C., Partanen, T., Sanga, M., & Mbise, G. (2001). Pesticide-handling practices in agriculture in Tanzania: Observational data from 27 coffee and cotton farms. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 7, 326–332.Google Scholar
- NLUP, National Land Use Plan. (1995). Appraisal: Analysis of potentials and issues. Zanzibar Integrated Land and Environmental Management Project. Finnish International Development Agency—National Board of Survey (Vol. S.02).Google Scholar
- RDC, Rufiji District Council. (2007a). Preliminary issue assessment report 2007. United Republic of Tanzania, Regional Administration and Local Government (Ed.).Google Scholar
- RDC, Rufiji District Council. (2007b). Integrated coastal management plan. United Republic of Tanzania, Regional Administration and Local Government (Ed.).Google Scholar
- Stadlinger, N. (2008). Possible risks and effects of pesticide usage on rice fields in the Cheju area, Zanzibar. Master thesis, Dept. Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.Google Scholar
- Taylor, M., Ravilious, C., & Green, E. P. (2003). Mangroves of East Africa. UNEP-WCMC Biodiversity Series (Vol. 13).Google Scholar
- Tomlin, C. (2000). A world compendium: The pesticide manual (12th ed.). Incorporating the agrochemical handbook. Crop Protection Publications, TOMRIC News Agency.Google Scholar
- Turpie, J. K. (2000). The use and value of natural resources of the Rufiji floodplain and delta, Tanzania. Rufiji Environmental Management Project (REMP) and IUCN—Eastern Africa Regional Office.Google Scholar
- Williamson, S. (2005). Breaking the barriers to IPM in Africa: Evidence from Benin, Ethiopia, Ghana and Senegal. In J. Pretty (Ed.), The pesticide detox—towards a more sustainable agriculture. London, UK: Earthscan.Google Scholar