Advertisement

Environment, Development and Sustainability

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 309–330 | Cite as

RETRACTED ARTICLE: Perspectives for the long-term penetration of new renewables in complex energy systems: the Italian scenario

  • Alessandro FrancoEmail author
  • Pasquale Salza
Article

Abstract

Renewable energy sources are mainly used in the electrical sector. Electricity is not a storable commodity. Hence, it is necessary to produce the requested quantity and distribute it through the system in such a way as to ensure that electricity supply and demand are always evenly balanced. This constraint is actually the main problem related to the penetration of new renewables (wind and photovoltaic power) in the context of complex energy systems. The paper analyzes some aspects in connection with the problem of new renewable energy penetration. The case of Italian scenario is considered as a meaningful reference due to the characteristic size and the complexity of the same. The various energy scenarios are evaluated with the aid of a multipurpose software taking into account the interconnections between the different energetic uses. In particular, it is shown how the penetration of new renewable energies is limited at an upper level by technological considerations and it will be more sustainable if an integration of the various energy use (thermal, mobility and electrical) field will be considered.

Keywords

Sustainable energy supply Fluctuating wind power Complex energy system Renewable energy Cogeneration Electric vehicles Integration 

List of symbols and abbreviations

CICE

Internal combustion engine vehicles consumption as km/kWh

Celv

Electric vehicles consumption as km/kWh

Eind

Primary energy consumption in industrial sector

Et

Industrial thermal energy demand

Etr

Primary energy consumption for internal combustion engines vehicles

ETP

Primary energy consumption in conventional thermal plants

ElecCHP

Electricity from CHP plants

ElecRH

Electric energy produced by river hydropower plants

ElecIR

Electric energy produced by intermittent renewable

ElecPV

Electric energy produced by photovoltaic plants

ElecWIND

Electric energy produced by wind power plants

f

Objective function

g

Inequality constraints

h

Equality constraints

p

Parameters

Pgrid

Power required on the grid

s

Kilometers of traffic by internal combustion engine vehicles substituted by electric vehicles

x, y, w

Variables

X, Y, W

Vector of variables

Δelv

Additional energy saving due to the introduction of electric vehicles

ΔEelv,tot

Overall energy saving due to the introduction of electric vehicles

ΔCHP

Loss of energy saving in cogeneration scenario

ΔEelv

Energy saving due to greater efficiency of electric vehicles compared to internal combustion engines

ηE

Mean efficiency of the plants connected to the electric grid

ηt

Conventional thermal energy production efficiency

ηE,CHP

CHP electrical efficiency

ηt,CHP

CHP thermal efficiency

AEEG

(Italian)authority for electric energy and gas

CAES

Compressed air energy storage

CEEP

Critical excess energy production

CHP

Combined heat and power (industrial cogeneration)

DH

District heating

EEEP

Exportable excess electricity production

EU

European union

IR

Intermittent renewables

PES

Primary energy saving

PV

Photovoltaic

RES

Renewable energy sources

RH

River hydropower plants

T.E.

Thermoelectric (power plants)

GW

=109 W

MW

=106 W

KWh

=3.6 MJ

Tpe

Tonns of oil equivalent primary energy (1 Tpe = 41.86 GJoules)

References

  1. Campoccia, A., Dusonchet, L., Telaretti, E., & Zizzo, G. (2009). Comparative analysis of different supporting measures for the production of electrical energy by solar PV and Wind systems: Four representative European cases. Solar Energy, 83, 287–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Connolly, D., Lund, H., Mathiesen, B. V., & Leahy, M. (2010). A review of computer tools for analysing the integration of renewable energy into various energy systems. Applied Energy, 87, 1059–1082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Energy Information Agency. (2009). International energy outlook 2009. OE/EIA-0484(2009) available on the web at www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/index.html (Accessed July 2010).
  4. ENEA. (2009). Italian energy and environment report, 2007–2008, available on the web at http://www.enea.it/produzione_scientifica/volumi/REA_2007/REA2007_Dati_Prima.html#nazionali (Last Accessed July 2010).
  5. Fthenakis, V., Mason, J. E., & Zweibel, K. (2009). The technical, geographical, and economic feasibility for solar energy to supply the energy needs of the US. Energy Policy, 37, 387–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Frangopoulos, C., von Spakovsky, M., & Sciubba, E. (2002). A brief review of methods for the design and synthesis optimization of energy systems. International Journal of Applied Thermodynamics, 5, 151–160.Google Scholar
  7. Greenblatt, J. B., Succar, S., Denkenberger, D. C., Williams, R. H., & Socolow, R. H. (2007). Baseload wind energy: Modeling the competition between gas turbines and compressed air energy storage for supplemental generation. Energy Policy, 35, 1474–1492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Henning, D. (1997). MODEST—An energy-system optimisation model applicable to local utilities and countries. Energy, 22, 1135–1150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hoogwijk, M., van Vuuren, D., de Vries, B., & Turkenburg, W. (2007). Exploring the impact on cost and electricity production of high penetration levels of intermittent electricity in OECD Europe and the USA, results for wind energy. Energy, 32, 1381–1402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lund, H., & Clark, W. W. (2002). Management of fluctuations in wind power and CHP comparing two possible Danish strategies. Energy, 27, 471–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lund, H. (2005). Large-scale integration of wind power into different energy systems. Energy, 30, 2402–2412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lund, H. (2009). Renewable energy systems—The choice and modeling of 100% renewable solutions. Burlington: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  13. Østergaard, P. A. (2008). Geographic aggregation and wind power output variance in Denmark. Energy, 33, 1453–1460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Salg, G., & Lund, H. (2008). System behaviour of compressed-air energy-storage in Denmark with a high penetration of renewable energy sources. Applied Energy, 85, 182–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Salza, P. (2010). Strategies for optimization of energy production and utilization systems in presence of meaningful penetration of renewable energies, Master Thesis in Energy Engineering, University of Pisa, Italy (in Italian). http://etd.adm.unipi.it/theses/available/etd-01182010-140621/ (Accessed August 2010).
  16. Stadler, I. (2008). Power grid balancing of energy systems with high renewable energy penetration by demand response. Utilities Policy, 16, 90–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Terna Sp.A. (2010a). Electric system. Statistical data on electricity synthesis in Italy 2008: Gross maximum capacity of power plants in major countries of the world at 31 December 2007. http://www.terna.it/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=7sOZrtBJvzE%3d&tabid=811 (Accessed April 2010).
  18. Terna S.p.A. (2010b). Electric system. Statistical data on electricity synthesis in Italy 2008: Loads of Italian Electric Power System. http://www.terna.it/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=E80QiIDTCdE%3d&tabid=811 (Accessed April 2010).
  19. Wille-Haussmann, B., Erge, T., & Wittwer, C. (2010). Decentralised optimisation of cogeneration in virtual power plants. Solar Energy, 84, 604–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Energetica “L. Poggi”Università di PisaPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations