RETRACTED ARTICLE: Perspectives for the long-term penetration of new renewables in complex energy systems: the Italian scenario
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Renewable energy sources are mainly used in the electrical sector. Electricity is not a storable commodity. Hence, it is necessary to produce the requested quantity and distribute it through the system in such a way as to ensure that electricity supply and demand are always evenly balanced. This constraint is actually the main problem related to the penetration of new renewables (wind and photovoltaic power) in the context of complex energy systems. The paper analyzes some aspects in connection with the problem of new renewable energy penetration. The case of Italian scenario is considered as a meaningful reference due to the characteristic size and the complexity of the same. The various energy scenarios are evaluated with the aid of a multipurpose software taking into account the interconnections between the different energetic uses. In particular, it is shown how the penetration of new renewable energies is limited at an upper level by technological considerations and it will be more sustainable if an integration of the various energy use (thermal, mobility and electrical) field will be considered.
KeywordsSustainable energy supply Fluctuating wind power Complex energy system Renewable energy Cogeneration Electric vehicles Integration
List of symbols and abbreviations
Internal combustion engine vehicles consumption as km/kWh
Electric vehicles consumption as km/kWh
Primary energy consumption in industrial sector
Industrial thermal energy demand
Primary energy consumption for internal combustion engines vehicles
Primary energy consumption in conventional thermal plants
Electricity from CHP plants
Electric energy produced by river hydropower plants
Electric energy produced by intermittent renewable
Electric energy produced by photovoltaic plants
Electric energy produced by wind power plants
Power required on the grid
Kilometers of traffic by internal combustion engine vehicles substituted by electric vehicles
- x, y, w
- X, Y, W
Vector of variables
Additional energy saving due to the introduction of electric vehicles
Overall energy saving due to the introduction of electric vehicles
Loss of energy saving in cogeneration scenario
Energy saving due to greater efficiency of electric vehicles compared to internal combustion engines
Mean efficiency of the plants connected to the electric grid
Conventional thermal energy production efficiency
CHP electrical efficiency
CHP thermal efficiency
(Italian)authority for electric energy and gas
Compressed air energy storage
Critical excess energy production
Combined heat and power (industrial cogeneration)
Exportable excess electricity production
Primary energy saving
Renewable energy sources
River hydropower plants
Thermoelectric (power plants)
Tonns of oil equivalent primary energy (1 Tpe = 41.86 GJoules)
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