Environment, Development and Sustainability

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 241–261 | Cite as

Household water in rural asia: a case study of the construction of a piped water system in Bangui, Ilocos Norte, Philippines

Article

Abstract

In early 1980 an extension agent was assigned to the rural municipality of Bangui, Ilocos Norte, Philippines to work on development projects – in particular the improvement of the supply of safe water for drinking and sanitation. After many months of visiting spring sites and meeting with community leaders, a small part of the municipality was selected to build a gravity fed piped water system. Although the system took many months to plan, identify funding and construct, the 600 community members were ultimately rewarded with house to house connections that enabled them to achieve per capita water consumption levels above the minimum levels recommended by the World Health Organization. Of course, money was critical to ensure the project’s success, but many other factors played an equally critical role. For instance, without the active participation of the community and the unwavering support of the community leadership the project would not have survived the initial planning stage. Also, the extension agent played a critical role by acting as a conduit between funding agencies, the Bureau of Public Works and the community. The primary lesson to be learned from this experience is that the success of rural development projects is largely driven by the synergy between the community, technical support, financial support, and agents of change such as extension agents. If any of these ingredients had been lacking, the project result would likely have been far different.

Keywords

Bangui consumption construction development Ilocos Norte Philippines pipe rural water. 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ASEAN-Japan Centre: 2003, http://asean.or.jp/general/statistics/01basic/09.htmlGoogle Scholar
  2. Asian Development Bank: 1996, Report and Recommendation of the President to the Board of Directors on Proposed Loans to the Republic of the Philippines for the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Project, Asian Development Bank, RRP: PHI 27013, pp. 73Google Scholar
  3. Ibid: 1995, Project Performance Audit Report: Island Provinces Rural Water Supply Sector Project in the Philippines, Asian Development Bank, PPA: PHI 18004, L-812-PHI, pp. 19Google Scholar
  4. AusAID: 2004, Identifying Elements of Sustainability: Lessons learned from Rural Water Supply Projects in the Philippines, AusAID, Water and Sanitation Program, pp. 14Google Scholar
  5. Ibid: 2003, Rural Water: Models for Sustainable Development and Sector Financing: Volume 1—Final Report, AusAID, Water Supply & Sanitation Performance Enhancement Project (WPEP)Google Scholar
  6. Botchway K., 2001 Paradox of empowerment: reflections on a case study from northern Ghana World Development 29(1): 135–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Briscoe, J. and deFerranti, D.: 1988, Water for Rural Communities: Helping People Help Themselves, Report No. 11204, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (The World Bank), pp. 32Google Scholar
  8. Chapagain, A.K., and Hoekstra, A.Y.: 2004, Water Footprints of Nations: Volume 1: Main Report, UNESCO-IHE, Institute for Water Education, Value of Water: Research Report Series No. 16, pp. 75Google Scholar
  9. De Vera, A.R.: 2000, Sustainability of Community-Based Rural Water Supply Organizations, Water Supply & Sanitation Performance Enhancement Project (WPEP), Australian Agency for International DevelopmentGoogle Scholar
  10. Esguerra, J.U.: 2002, Rural Water Supply subsidies in the Philippines, Australian Agency for International DevelopmentGoogle Scholar
  11. Falkenmark M., Lind G., 1993, Water and economic development. In: P. Gleick (eds). Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World’s Fresh Water Resources Oxford Oxford University Press pp. 80–91Google Scholar
  12. Garvida, G.R.: August 10, 2004, Office of the Municipal Planning & Development Coordinator, Bangui, Ilocos Norte, Philippines, Personal CommunicationGoogle Scholar
  13. Gleick, H.P.: 1993, Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resources, Oxford, Stockholm Environment Institute, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 374–378Google Scholar
  14. Global Environment Facility 2002, The Challenge of Sustainability: An Action Agenda for the Global Environment Global Environment Facility, pp. 1–19Google Scholar
  15. IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre-Netherlands: 1997, Water Supplies Managed by Rural Communities: Country Reports and Case Studies from: Cameroon, Columbia, Guatemala, Kenya, Nepal and Pakistan, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, Project and Programme Papers, 5-E, pp.␣120Google Scholar
  16. Ibid: 1993, Community Management Today: The Role of Communities in the Management of Improved Water Supply Systems, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, Occasional Paper Series, OP-20-E, pp. 29Google Scholar
  17. Katz, T. and Sara, J.: 1997, Making Rural Water Sustainable: Recommendations from a Global Study, UNDP-World Bank Water and Sanitation Program, pp. 8Google Scholar
  18. Kleemeier E., 2000, The impact of participation on sustainability: an analysis of the malawi rural piped scheme program World Development 28(5): 929–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Krishna A., Robertson L.R, 1997, The self-help rural water supply program in Malawi In: A. Krishna, N. Uphoff, M.J. Esman, (eds). Reasons for Hope: Instructive Experiences in Rural Development Hartford, Connecticut Kumarian Press pp. 228–238Google Scholar
  20. Llanto, G.M.: 2002, Infrastructure Development: Experience and Policy Options for the Future, Philippine Institute for Development Studies, Discussion Paper Series No. 2002–26, pp. 150Google Scholar
  21. Narayan D., 1995, The Contribution of People’s Participation: Evidence from 121 Rural Water Supply Projects Washington, D.C. The World BankGoogle Scholar
  22. Njoh A.J., 2002, Barriers to community participation in development planning: lessons from the mutengene (cameroon) self-help water project Community Development Journal 37(3): 233–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Olmstead S.M., 2003, Water supply and poor communities: what’s price got to do with It? Environment 45(10): 22–38Google Scholar
  24. Phillips, M.: 1981, 1981 Socio Economic Profile of Bangui Ilocos Norte, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  25. Pimentel, D., Berger, B., Filiberto, D., Newton, M., Wolfe, B., Karabinakis, E., Clark, S., Poon, E., Abbett, E. and Nandagopal, S.: 2004, Water Resources, Agriculture and the Environment, Report 04–1, Cornell University, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, pp. 46Google Scholar
  26. Shiklomanov I.A., 1993, World fresh water resources In: P. Gleick, (eds) Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World’s Fresh Water Resources Oxford Oxford University Press pp. 13–24Google Scholar
  27. The World Bank: 1976, Village Water Supply, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (The World Bank)Google Scholar
  28. United Nations: 2003, Water for People, Water for Life: A Joint Report by the 23 UN Agencies Concerned with Fresh Water, The United Nations World Water Development Report, pp. 1–102Google Scholar
  29. WHO/UNICEF: 2001, Access to Improved Drinking Water Sources: Philippines, WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation Coverage Estimates 1980–2000, pp. 5Google Scholar
  30. Ibid: 2000, Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report, WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation, http://www.who.int/docstore/water_sanitation_health/Globassessment/GlobalGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Economics DepartmentGeorgetown College in GeorgetownMoreheadUSA

Personalised recommendations