Advertisement

Environmental Modeling & Assessment

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 421–430 | Cite as

Modelling Gene Flow between Fields of White Clover with Honeybees as Pollen Vectors

  • Christina L. Løjtnant
  • Birte Boelt
  • Sabine K. Clausen
  • Christian Damgaard
  • Per Kryger
  • Ari Novy
  • Marianne Philipp
  • Cathrine H. Ingvordsen
  • Rikke Bagger JørgensenEmail author
Article

Abstract

The portion-dilution model is a parametric restatement of the conventional view of animal pollination; it predicts the level of pollinator-mediated gene dispersal. In this study, the model was applied to white clover (Trifolium repens) and its most frequent pollinator, the honeybee (Apis mellifera). One of the three parameters in the portion-dilution model is the mean number of flowers a pollinator visits in one foraging bout. An alternative method to estimate this parameter was developed that was not depending on pollinator hive-seeking behaviour. The new estimation method, based on nectar collection, seems to be a good alternative, when reliable observation on visiting behaviour of pollinators is not possible. The gene flow in white clover was modelled. Where fields were assumed to be well separated, and only a low fraction of bees travelled between fields, the gene flow was estimated to be 0.7%, but subjected to large uncertainty. In a worst case scenario with adjacent fields—one with a genetically modified (GM) T. repens cultivar and the other with a conventional T. repens cultivar—and where all arriving bees were expected to transfer GM pollen, the median gene flow was modelled to be 7% with an estimated 95% percentile of 70%. The results show that the European Union threshold limit of 0.9% GM admixture for food and feed will likely be exceeded at times and especially organic farmers that do not accept GM admixture and often have clover and clover–grass fields might face challenges with admixture of GM.

Keywords

Gene flow Pollination Portion-dilution model Trifolium repens Apis mellifera Co-existence 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Vibeke Meyer (DLF-Trifolium) for providing us with the plant material. A special thanks to Per Kristiansen (DJF, AU) for generously providing us with honeybee hives. Annie Enkegaard (DJF, AU) is thanked for generously lending us her research material on nectar production in white clover. We are also grateful to Mads Andersen who gave us permission to perform pollinator observations in his organic clover field in Torkildstrup. Finally, we acknowledge the wise words about bees from Winnie the Pooh. This project was funded by FØJO III.

References

  1. 1.
    Andersen, E. S., Jespersgaard, P., & Østergaard, O. G. (1983). Databog Fysik Kemi. 2. edition. F&K Forlaget.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Braun, E., MacVicar, R. M., Gibson, D. A., Pankiw, P., & Guppy, J. (1953). Studies in red clover seed production. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Science, 31, 295–297.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cecen, S., Gosterit, A., & Gurel, F. (2007). Pollination effects of the bumble bee and honey bee on white clover (Trifolium repens L.) seed production. Journal of Apicultural Research, 46, 69–72.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cresswell, J. E. (2005). Accurate theoretical prediction of pollinator-mediated gene dispersal. Ecology, 86, 574–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cresswell, J. E. (2008). Estimating the potential for bee-mediated gene flow in genetically modified crops. In R. R. James & T. L. Pitt-Singer (Eds.), Bee pollination in agricultural ecosystems (pp. 184–202). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cresswell, J. E., & Hoyle, M. (2006). A mathematical method for estimating patterns of flower-to-flower gene dispersal from a simple field experiment. Functional Ecology, 20, 245–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cresswell, J. E., Bassom, A. P., Bell, S. A., Collins, S. J., & Kelly, T. B. (1995). Predicted pollen dispersal by honey-bees and three species of bumble-bees on oil-seed rape: a comparison of three models. Functional Ecology, 9, 829–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cresswell, J. E., Osborne, J. L., & Bell, S. A. (2002). A model of pollinator-mediated gene flow between plant populations with numerical solutions for bumblebees pollinating oilseed rape. Oikos, 98, 375–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Damgaard, C., Simonsen, V., & Osborne, J. L. (2008). Prediction of pollen-mediated gene flow between fields of red clover (Trifolium pratense). Enviromental Modeling & Assessment, 13, 483–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Goulson, D. (2000). Why do pollinators visit proportionally fewer flowers in large patches? Oikos, 91, 485–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hammer, O. (1963). Om træk i hvidkløver, der blomstrer samtidig med vårraps. Tidsskrift for biavl, 97, 191–193.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Holm, S. N. (1982). Insektbestøvning af kulturplanter. Afdelingen for landbrugets plantekultur (KVL.) Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Marshall, A., Michaelson-Yeates, T., & Williams, I. (1999). How busy are bees—modeling the pollination of clover. Iger innovations, 1999, 18–21. http://www.aber.ac.uk/en/media/99ch3.pdf
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
    Percival, M. (1950). Pollen presentation and pollen collection. Phytologist, 49, 40–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pilson, D., & Prendeville, H. R. (2004). Ecological effects of transgenic crops and the escape of transgenes into wild populations. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 35, 149–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tolstrup, K., Andersen, S. B., Boelt, B., Buus, M., Gylling, M., Holm, P. B., et al. (2003). Rapport fra Udredningsgruppen vedrørende sameksistens mellem genetisk modificerede, konventionelle og økologiske afgrøder. Ministeriet for fødevarer, landbrug og fiskeri.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tolstrup, K., Andersen, S. B., Boelt, B., Buus, M., Gylling, M., Holm, P. B., et al. (2007). Supplerende rapport fra Udrednings-gruppen vedrørende sameksistens mellem genetisk modificerede, konventionelle og økologiske afgrøder. Ministeriet for fødevarer, landbrug og fiskeri.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Weaver, N. (1965). Foraging behavior of honeybees on white clover. Insectes Sociaux, XII(3), 231–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christina L. Løjtnant
    • 1
  • Birte Boelt
    • 2
  • Sabine K. Clausen
    • 1
  • Christian Damgaard
    • 3
  • Per Kryger
    • 2
  • Ari Novy
    • 4
  • Marianne Philipp
    • 5
  • Cathrine H. Ingvordsen
    • 1
  • Rikke Bagger Jørgensen
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Biosystems DivisionTechnical University of DenmarkRoskildeDenmark
  2. 2.Faculty of Agricultural SciencesUniversity of AarhusSlagelseDenmark
  3. 3.BioscienceAarhus UniversitySilkeborgDenmark
  4. 4.Department of Plant Biology, Pathology and Landscape ArchitectureRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA
  5. 5.Department of BiologyUniversity of CopenhagenKøbenhavn N.Denmark

Personalised recommendations