Empirical Software Engineering

, Volume 17, Issue 4–5, pp 531–577

Evaluating defect prediction approaches: a benchmark and an extensive comparison


DOI: 10.1007/s10664-011-9173-9

Cite this article as:
D’Ambros, M., Lanza, M. & Robbes, R. Empir Software Eng (2012) 17: 531. doi:10.1007/s10664-011-9173-9


Reliably predicting software defects is one of the holy grails of software engineering. Researchers have devised and implemented a plethora of defect/bug prediction approaches varying in terms of accuracy, complexity and the input data they require. However, the absence of an established benchmark makes it hard, if not impossible, to compare approaches. We present a benchmark for defect prediction, in the form of a publicly available dataset consisting of several software systems, and provide an extensive comparison of well-known bug prediction approaches, together with novel approaches we devised. We evaluate the performance of the approaches using different performance indicators: classification of entities as defect-prone or not, ranking of the entities, with and without taking into account the effort to review an entity. We performed three sets of experiments aimed at (1) comparing the approaches across different systems, (2) testing whether the differences in performance are statistically significant, and (3) investigating the stability of approaches across different learners. Our results indicate that, while some approaches perform better than others in a statistically significant manner, external validity in defect prediction is still an open problem, as generalizing results to different contexts/learners proved to be a partially unsuccessful endeavor.


Defect prediction Source code metrics Change metrics 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marco D’Ambros
    • 1
  • Michele Lanza
    • 1
  • Romain Robbes
    • 2
  1. 1.REVEAL @ Faculty of InformaticsUniversity of LuganoLuganoSwitzerland
  2. 2.PLEIAD Lab @ Computer Science Department (DCC)University of ChileSantiagoChile

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