How do middle-aged children allocate time and money transfers to their older parents in Europe?
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This paper analyses the determinants of financial and time transfers from adult children to their older parents using the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). It is the first survey containing rich comparable interdisciplinary information about individuals aged 50+ from ten European countries (Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland). The first part of the paper highlights the differences in the provision of upward private intergenerational transfers (in terms of both time and money) across the ten European countries. The second part describes the different determinants in the decision to provide time or money transfers to parents and evaluates whether these two types of assistance are substitutes or complements. Results highlight the existence of a substitution between time and money in relation to geographical distance and the existence of a weak substitution regarding the employment status of the middle-aged children.
KeywordsInformal care Private intergenerational transfers
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