Butralin is widely used to control single-leaf weeds and some dicotyledons. The application of butralin in the environment may cause residue beyond regulation criteria and residual toxicity. Therefore, it is important to detect and supervise the dissipation behavior of butralin in edible raw food and in the environment. The aim of this study was to monitor butralin in peanuts and soil under farmland conditions and examine the likely dietary risk assessment of butralin for Chinese people on the basis of residual concentrations. A method for the analysis of butralin residue and its dissipation in peanut plants and soil under field conditions was investigated. The results show that an analytical method for the quantization of butralin in peanuts and soil utilizing gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) was developed. Standard recovery experiments using three different butralin spiking levels of 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg kg−1 in different samples (i.e., peanut kernels, shell, seedling, stalk, and soil) were conducted. The recoveries of butralin from all matrices ranged from 86 to 108% with relative standard deviations from 3 to 6% (n = 5). The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 0.01 mg kg−1. After storage at − 20 °C for 365 days, the degradation rate of residues of butralin in peanut kernels was less than 30%, which met the storage stability test criteria for pesticide residues in stored commodities of plant origin. The dissipation half-lives of butralin ranged from 4.2 to 6.6 days and 4.6 to 6.6 days in peanut seedlings and soil, respectively, in farmland ecosystems. At the normal harvest time, the final residue concentrations of butralin in peanuts and soil were all below the LOQ. The final total risk quotient (RQ) values were much lower than RQ = 100%, which indicated that the long-run fitness risk associated with butralin residue in different groups of registered crops is correspondingly low for people in China. The current research results could offer guidance for the rational use of butralin and provide data support for the building of maximum residue limits (MRLs) in China.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Ai, X. (2015). A preliminary study on determination method of sucker cides and pesticides and degradation of butralin in fresh tobacco leaves (pp. 10–15). Huazhong Agricultural University.
Alejo, L., Atkinson, J., Guzmán-Fierro, V., & Roeckel, M. (2018). Effluent composition prediction of a two-stage anaerobic digestion process: machine learning and stoichiometry techniques. Environmental Science & Pollution Research, 1–15.
Cang, T., Sun, C., Zhao, H., Tang, T., Zhang, C., Yu, R., Wang, X., Wang, Q., Dai, F., & Zhao, X. (2018). Residue behavior and risk assessment of imidacloprid applied on greenhouse-cultivated strawberries under different application conditions. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 25, 5024–5032.
Cao, M., He, J., & Ni, H. Y. (2019). Research progress on microbial degradation of dinitroaniline herbicides. Microbiology China, 7, 1–10.
Chen, H., Wang, Q., Jiang, Y., Wang, C., Yin, P., Liu, X., & Lu, C. (2015). Monitoring and risk assessment of 74 pesticide residues in Pu-erh tea produced in Yunnan, China. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part B: Surveillance, 8, 56–62.
Dar, A. A., Jan, I., Wani, A. A., Mubashir, S., Sofi, K. A., Sofi, J. A., & Dar, I. H. (2018). Risk assessment, dissipation behaviour, and persistence of quinalphos in/on green pea by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Journal of Separation Science, 41(11), 2380–2385.
Dong, B., Zhao, Q., & Hu, J. (2015). Dissipation kinetics of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron residues in cabbage grown under field conditions. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187, 765.
GB 2763-2016, China. National food safety standard-Maximum residue limits for pesticides in food.
Grande-Martínez, Á., Arrebola-Liébanas, F. J., Martínez-Vidal, J. L., Hernández-Torres, M. E., & Garrido-Frenich, A. (2015). Optimization and validation of a multiresidue pesticide method in rice and wheat flour by modified QuEChERS and GC–MS/MS. Food Analytical Methods, 9, 548–563.
Gu, Y., Liang, S., Hou, Z., Zhao, X., Wang, X., & Lu, Z. (2016). Storage stability of bensulfuron-methyl and butralin in rice samples using HPLC. Plant Protection, 42, 154–158.
Hao, H. D., Wu, L. L., Li, Q. Y., Peng, X. D., Wang, H. L., & Li, W. M. (2015). Mitigation effects of some antidotes on phytotoxicityof butralin to radish. Agrochemicals, 54, 591–596.
Hou et al. (2017) analyzed the butralin residues in rice plants, farmland water and rough rice using ultra-performance liquid chromatograph with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS / MS / MS).
Huang, Y., Shia, T., Luo, X., Xiong, H., Min, F., Chen, Y., Nie, S., & Xie, M. (2019). Determination of multi-pesticide residues in green tea with a modified QuEChERS protocol coupled to HPLC-MS/MS. Food Chemistry, 275, 255–264.
Kabir, M. H., Abd El-Aty, A. M., Rahman, M. M., Chung, H. S., Lee, H. S., Jeong, J. H., Wang, J., Shin, S., Shin, H. C., & Shim, J. H. (2018). Dissipation kinetics, pre-harvest residue limits, and dietary risk assessment of the systemic fungicide metalaxyl in Swiss chard grown under greenhouse conditions. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 92, 201–206.
Lei, L. M., Pirmoghani, A., Samadi, M. T., Shokoohi, R., Roshanaei, G., & Poormohammadi, A. (2016). Determination of pesticides residues in cucumbers grown in greenhouse and the effect of some procedures on their residues. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 45, 1481–1490.
Li, R., Liu, T., Cui, S., Zhang, S., Yu, J., & Song, G. (2017a). Residue behaviors and dietary risk assessment of dinotefuran and its metabolites in oryza sativa by a new HPLC-MS/MS method. Food Chemistry, 235, 188–193.
Li, C., Liu, R., Li, L., Li, W., He, Y., & Yuan, L. (2017b). Dissipation behavior and risk assessment of butralin in soybean and soil under field conditions. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 189, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-6185-y.
Liao, Q. G., Zhou, Y. M., Luo, L. G., Wang, L. B., & Feng, X. H. (2014). Determination of twelve herbicides in tobacco by a combination of solid–liquid–solid dispersive extraction using multi-walled carbon nanotubes, dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction, and detection by GC with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Microchimica Acta, 181, 163–169.
Liu, F. (2016). Determination of butralin residue in watermelon by GC-μECD. Pesticide Science and Administration, 37, 48–51.
Liu, H., Ding, C., Zhang, S., Liu, H., Liao, X., Qu, L., Zhao, Y., & Wu, Y. (2004). Simultaneous residue measurement of pendimethalin, isopropalin, and butralin in tobacco using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometric identification. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52, 6912–6915.
Liu, T., Zhang, C., Peng, J., Zhang, Z., Sun, X., Xiao, H., Sun, K., Pan, L., Liu, X., & Tu, K. (2016). Residual behaviors of six pesticides in shiitake from cultivation to postharvest drying process and risk assessment. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 64, 8977–8985.
Lu, Z., Fang, N., Liu, Y., Zhang, Z., Pan, H., Hou, Z., Li, Y., & Lu, Z. (2017). Dissipation and residues of the diamide insecticide chlorantraniliprole in ginseng ecosystems under different cultivation environments. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-6241-7.
Margot, L., Marie-Hélène, J., Arnaud, B., Christophe, C., & Chantal, L. (2019). Controlling weeds in camelina with innovative herbicide-free crop management routes across various environments. Industrial Crops and Products, 140, 111605.
Martins, L. M., Sant'Ana, A. S., Iamanaka, B. T., Berto, M. I., Pitt, J. I., & Taniwaki, M. H. (2017). Kinetics of aflatoxin degradation during peanut roasting. Food Research International, 97, 178–183.
Niu, J., & Hu, J. (2018). Dissipation behaviour and dietary risk assessment of boscalid, triflumizole and its metabolite (FM-6-1) in open-field cucumber based on QuEChERS using HPLC-MS/MS technique. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 98, 4501–4508.
NY/T 3094-2017, China. Guideline for the stability testing of pesticide residues in stored commodities of plant origin.
Oliva, J., Cermeno, S., Camara, M. A., Martinez, G., & Barba, A. (2017). Disappearance of six pesticides in fresh and processed zucchini, bioavailability and health risk assessment. Food Chemistry, 229, 172–177.
Pérez-Ortega, P., Lara-Ortega, F. J., Gilbert-López, B., Moreno-González, D., García-Reyes, J. F., & Molina-Díaz, A. (2017). Screening of over 600 pesticides, veterinary drugs, food-packaging contaminants, mycotoxins, and other chemicals in food by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOFMS). Food Analytical Methods, 10, 1216–1244.
Piao, H., Jiang, Y., Li, X., Ma, P., Wang, X., & Song, S. D. (2019). Matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction for determination of triazine herbicides in peanuts. Journal of Separation Science, 42, 2123–2130.
Qian, Y., Matsumoto, H., Liu, X., Li, S., Liang, X., Liu, Y., Zhu, G., & Wang, M. (2017). Dissipation, occurrence and risk assessment of a phenylurea herbicide tebuthiuron in sugarcane and aquatic ecosystems in South China. Environmental Pollution, 227, 389–396.
Qie, F., & Li, M. (2010). Determination of butralin residue in soil and tobacco leaves by gas chromatography. Guizhou Agricultural Sciences, 38, 103–105.
Remington, B. C., Baumert, J. L., Marx, D. B., & Taylor, S. L. (2013). Quantitative risk assessment of foods containing peanut advisory labeling. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 62, 179–187.
SN/T3859-2014, The occupation standard of P.R. China. Determination of butralin pestcide residue in foodstuffs for export.
Song, W., Jia, C., Jing, J., Zhao, E., He, M., Chen, L., & Yu, P. (2018). Residue behavior and dietary intake risk assessment of carbosulfan and its metabolites in cucumber. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 95, 250–253.
Wang, G. (1998). Determination of butralin in EC by gas chromatography. Pesticide Science and Administration, 28–30.
Wang, D., & Zhang, K. (2017). Determination of the dissipation dynamics and residue behaviors of chlorantraniliprole in sugarcane and soil by LC-MS/MS. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 189, 372.
Wang, L., Zhao, P., Zhang, F., Li, Y., Du, F., & Pan, C. (2012). Dissipation and residue behavior of emamectin benzoate on apple and cabbage field application. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 78, 260–264.
Wang, Q., Wei, P., Cao, M., Liu, Y., Wang, M., Guo, Y., & Zhu, G. (2016). Residual behavior and risk assessment of the mixed formulation of benzene kresoxim-methyl and fluazinam in cucumber field application. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 188, 341.
Wang, S., Sun, H., & Liu, Y. (2018). Residual behavior and risk assessment of tridemorph in banana conditions. Food Chemistry, 244, 71–74.
Wu, X., Long, Y., & Li, M. (2009a). Study on analysis method of butralin residue in soil and water. Guizhou Agricultural Sciences, 37, 214–215.
Wu, X., Li, M., Long, Y., & Li, R. (2009b). Analytical method of butralin in emulsifiable concentrate using high performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Mountain Agriculture and Biology, 28, 432–435.
Xu, Y., Zhang, J., Guo, M., Zhou, Q., & Li, B. (2012). Degradation dynamics of butralin in soil. Modern Agrochemicals, 11, 33–36.
Yang, X., Wang, J., Xu, D. C., Qiu, J. W., Ma, Y., & Cui, J. (2011). Simultaneous determination of 69 pesticide residues in coffee by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Food Analytical Methods, 4, 186–195.
Yao, Y. (1992). Determination of residues of dilamine in crops and digestion dynamics in soil. Liaoning Agricultural Sciences, 42–44.
Zhao, H., Zhao, S., Deng, L., Mao, J., Guo, C., Yang, G., Lu, X., & Aboul-Enein, H. Y. (2013). Rapid determination of organonitrogen, organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in tea by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Food Analytical Methods, 6, 497–505.
Zheng, G., Liu, Y., Peng, G., Wang, J., Zhu, M., & Wang, G. (2014). GC determination of residual amount of butralin in food. Physical Testing and Chemical Analysis Part B:Chemical Analysi, 50, 349–352.
Zhu, X., & Xie, W. (2006). Determination of butralin by gas chromatography. Agrochemicals, 45, 687–688.
Zoccali, M., Purcaro, G., Schepis, A., Tranchida, P. Q., & Mondello, L. (2017). Miniaturization of the QuEChERS method in the fast gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of pesticide residues in vegetables. Food Analytical Methods, 10, 2636–2645.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Yang, L., Song, X., Zhou, X. et al. Residual behavior and risk assessment of butralin in peanut fields. Environ Monit Assess 192, 62 (2020) doi:10.1007/s10661-019-8013-z
- Risk assessment