Soil enzyme response to bisphenol F contamination in the soil bioaugmented using bacterial and mould fungal consortium

  • Magdalena Zaborowska
  • Jadwiga WyszkowskaEmail author
  • Jan Kucharski


The concept of the study resulted from the lack of accurate data on the toxicity of bisphenol F (BPF) coinciding with the need for immediate changes in the global economic policy eliminating the effects of environmental contamination with bisphenol A (BPA). The aim of the experiment was to determine the scale of the previously unstudied inhibitory effect of BPF on soil biochemical activity. To this end, in a soil subjected to increasing BPF pressure at three contamination levels of 0, 5, 50 and 500 mg BPF kg−1 DM, responses of soil enzymes, dehydrogenases, catalase, urease, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, arylsulphatase and β-glucosidase, were examined. Moreover, the study suggested a potentially effective way of biostimulating the soil by means of bioaugmentation with a consortium of four bacterial species: Pseudomonas umsongensis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus weihenstephanensis and Bacillus subtilis, and the following fungal species: Mucor circinelloides, Penicillium daleae, Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus niger. It was found that BPF was a controversial BPA analogue due to the fact that it contributed to the inhibition of all the enzyme activities. Dehydrogenases proved to be the most sensitive to bisphenol contamination of the soil. The addition of 5 mg BPF kg−1 DM of soil triggered an escalation of the inhibition comparable to that for the other enzymes only after exposing them to the effects of 50 and 500 mg BPF kg−1 DM of soil. Moreover, BPF generated low activity of urease, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and β-glucosidase. Bacterial inoculum increased the activity of urease, β-glucosidase, catalase and alkaline phosphatase. Seventy-six percent of BPF underwent biodegradation during the 5 days of the study.


BPF Biochemical activity Soil Bioaugmentation Bacterial consortium Mould fungi consortium 


Funding information

The research was supported by the Higher Education and Polish Ministry of Science funds for statutory activity and co-financed by the National Science Center (Project MINIATURA1). Project financially supported by Minister of Science and Higher Education range of the program entitled “Regional Initiative of Excellence” for the years 2019–2022, Project No. 010/RID/2018/19 amount of funding 12.000.000 PLN.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyUniversity of Warmia and Mazury in OlsztynOlsztynPoland

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