Influencing factors behind inappropriate solid waste management of small clinics in a resource-constrained country

  • Aves Ahmed KhanEmail author
  • Bilal Ahmed Khan
  • Haris Ahmed
  • Shazia Shaheen Shaikh


Appropriate clinical waste management is a critical concern in today’s era. Resource-constrained countries agonize greatly over this issue in order to mitigate inappropriate clinical waste management practices. The goal of this study is to assess factors behind inappropriate waste management of small clinics in resource-constrained countries. We tested the hypothesis that negligence of government, knowledge and awareness, and financial burden are three key factors behind inappropriate solid waste management of small clinics. A two-phase survey including a pilot study and a main study was conducted for exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, respectively, in the fourth largest city of Pakistan, i.e., Hyderabad. One sample t test was used to validate the hypothesis, the correlation between the three key factors, and the location of the clinics were established. These factors were found to have a contribution to inappropriate waste management of small clinics. The hypothesis was then validated, and all three factors were found to have no significant variation in responses with the contrast of three types of clinic locations, namely, low-, medium-, and high-income areas. Responses were almost identical and bear equal significance from all locations, the financial burden factor is at the highest, the second factor is the negligence of government, and the third factor is that of knowledge and awareness. This study highlights the factors that are usually neglected and can help to improve solid waste management of small clinics in resource-constrained countries.


Clinical waste Influencing factors Inappropriate solid waste management Small clinics Exploratory factor analysis Confirmatory factor analysis 


Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Economics and ManagementSoutheast UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.School of Economics and ManagementNanjing University of Science and TechnologyNanjingChina
  3. 3.Institute of Business AdministrationUniversity of SindhJamshoroPakistan
  4. 4.Department of Public AdministrationUniversity of SindhJamshoroPakistan

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