Advertisement

Influencing factors behind inappropriate solid waste management of small clinics in a resource-constrained country

  • Aves Ahmed KhanEmail author
  • Bilal Ahmed Khan
  • Haris Ahmed
  • Shazia Shaheen Shaikh
Article
  • 56 Downloads

Abstract

Appropriate clinical waste management is a critical concern in today’s era. Resource-constrained countries agonize greatly over this issue in order to mitigate inappropriate clinical waste management practices. The goal of this study is to assess factors behind inappropriate waste management of small clinics in resource-constrained countries. We tested the hypothesis that negligence of government, knowledge and awareness, and financial burden are three key factors behind inappropriate solid waste management of small clinics. A two-phase survey including a pilot study and a main study was conducted for exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, respectively, in the fourth largest city of Pakistan, i.e., Hyderabad. One sample t test was used to validate the hypothesis, the correlation between the three key factors, and the location of the clinics were established. These factors were found to have a contribution to inappropriate waste management of small clinics. The hypothesis was then validated, and all three factors were found to have no significant variation in responses with the contrast of three types of clinic locations, namely, low-, medium-, and high-income areas. Responses were almost identical and bear equal significance from all locations, the financial burden factor is at the highest, the second factor is the negligence of government, and the third factor is that of knowledge and awareness. This study highlights the factors that are usually neglected and can help to improve solid waste management of small clinics in resource-constrained countries.

Keywords

Clinical waste Influencing factors Inappropriate solid waste management Small clinics Exploratory factor analysis Confirmatory factor analysis 

Notes

Supplementary material

10661_2019_7971_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (190 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 190kb)
10661_2019_7971_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (319 kb)
ESM 2 (PDF 318kb)

References

  1. Ali, M., Wang, W., & Chaudhry, N. (2016). Management of wastes from hospitals: a case study in Pakistan. Waste Management & Research, 34(1), 87–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali, M., Wang, W., & Chaudhry, N. (2016a). Application of life cycle assessment for hospital solid waste management: a case study. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 66(10), 1012–1018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ali, M., Wang, W., & Chaudhry, N. (2016b). Investigating motivating factors for sound hospital waste management. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 66(8), 10962247.10962016.11181686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ali, M., Marvuglia, A., Geng, Y., Chaudhry, N., & Khokhar, S. (2018). Emergy based carbon footprinting of household solid waste management scenarios in Pakistan. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 131, 283–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, A., Wilcox, M., Savitz, A., Chung, H., Li, Q., Salvadore, G., Wang, D., Nuamah, I., Riese, S. P., & Bilder, R. M. (2015). Sparse factors for the positive and negative syndrome scale: which symptoms and stage of illness? Psychiatry Research, 225(3), 283–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arshad, N., Nayyar, S., Amin, F., & Mahmood, K. T. (2011). Hospital waste disposal: a review article. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 3(8), 1412.Google Scholar
  7. Askarian, M., Heidarpoor, P., & Assadian, O. (2010). A total quality management approach to healthcare waste management in Namazi Hospital, Iran. Waste Management, 30(11), 2321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bright, E., Vine, S., Wilson, M. R., Masters, R. S. W., & Mcgrath, J. S. (2012). Face validity, construct validity and training benefits of a virtual reality TURP simulator. International Journal of Surgery, 10(3), 163–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Business, S. D. (2010). Doing business in Pakistan 2010. http://www.doingbusiness.org/data/exploreeconomies/pakistan/sub/hyderabad. Accessed may 3rd 2018.
  10. Chartier, Y. (2014). Safe management of wastes from health-care activities. World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  11. Chen, D. W., Chen, J. W., Xu, W., Liu, W., Du, W. J., & Li, H. J. (2012a). A pilot study for reliability and validity of mini-physical performance test for Chinese male elders ☆. International Journal of Gerontology, 6(1), 16–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen, S. F., Wang, S., & Chen, C. Y. (2012b). A simulation study using EFA and CFA programs based the impact of missing data on test dimensionality. Expert Systems with Applications, 39(4), 4026–4031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Environment, M. o. (2005). Hospital waste management rules In M. o. Environment (Ed.), (Vol. 2005).Google Scholar
  14. Fisher, M. J., & King, J. (2010). The self-directed learning readiness scale for nursing education revisited: a confirmatory factor analysis. Nurse Education Today, 30(1), 44–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gunderman, R. B., & Chan, S. (2013). The 13-point Likert scale: a breakthrough in educational assessment. Academic Radiology, 20(11), 1466–1467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hardesty, D. M., & Bearden, W. O. (2004). The use of expert judges in scale development : implications for improving face validity of measures of unobservable constructs. Journal of Business Research, 57(2), 98–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hinkin, T. R. (1995). A review of scale development practices in the study of organizations. Journal of Management, 21(5), 967–988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hoejmose, S. U., Roehrich, J. K., & Grosvold, J. (2014). Is doing more doing better? The relationship between responsible supply chain management and corporate reputation. Industrial Marketing Management, 43(1), 77–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jalink, M. B., Goris, J., Heineman, E., Pierie, J. P. E. N., & Hoedemaker, H. O. T. C. (2015). Face validity of a Wii U video game for training basic laparoscopic skills. American Journal of Surgery, 209(6), 1102–1106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Johnson, L. B., Sumner, S., Duong, T., Yan, P., Bajcsy, R., Abresch, R. T., de Bie, E., & Han, J. J. (2015). Validity and reliability of smartphone magnetometer-based goniometer evaluation of shoulder abduction - a pilot study. Manual Therapy, 20(6), 777–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kakurina, N., Kadisa, A., Lejnieks, A., Mikazane, H., Kozireva, S., & Murovska, M. (2015). Use of exploratory factor analysis to ascertain the correlation between the activities of rheumatoid arthritis and infection by human parvovirus B19. Medicina, 51(1), 18–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Keikelame, M. J., Hills, R. M., Naidu, C., De, S. A., & Zweigenthal, V. (2012). General practitioners’ perceptions on management of epilepsy in primary care settings in Cape Town, South Africa: an exploratory pilot study. Epilepsy & Behavior, 25(1), 105–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Khan, B., Cheng, L., Khan, A., & Ahmed, H. (2019a). Healthcare waste management in Asian developing countries: a mini review. Waste management & research: the journal of the International Solid Wastes and Public Cleansing Association, ISWA, 734242X19857470-19734242X19857470.Google Scholar
  24. Khan, B., Khan, A., Ali, M., & Cheng, L. (2019b). Greenhouse gas emission from small clinics solid waste management scenarios in an urban area of an underdeveloping country: a life cycle perspective. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 1995, 1–11.Google Scholar
  25. Kumar, R., Khan, E. A., Ahmed, J., Khan, Z., Magan, M., Nousheen, et al. (2010). Healthcare waste management (HCWM) in Pakistan: current situation and training options. Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad, 22(4), 101–105.Google Scholar
  26. Mackenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, P. M. (2012). Common method bias in marketing: causes, mechanisms, and procedural remedies. Journal of Retailing, 88(4), 542–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Manhenke, C., Ørn, S., Haehling, S. V., Kai, C. W., Ueland, T., Aukrust, P., et al. (2013). Clustering of 37 circulating biomarkers by exploratory factor analysis in patients following complicated acute myocardial infarction. International Journal of Cardiology, 166(3), 729–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mehta, S. P., Macdermid, J. C., Richardson, J., Macintyre, N. J., & Grewal, R. (2015). Reliability and validity of selected measures associated with increased fall risk in females over the age of 45 years with distal radius fracture - a pilot study. Journal of Hand Therapy, 28(1), 2–9; quiz 10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nguyen, T., & Shi, W. (2012). Improving resource efficiency in data centers using reputation-based resource selection ☆. Sustainable Computing Informatics & Systems, 2(3), 138–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ogishi, A., Zilberman, D., & Metcalfe, M. (2003). Integrated agribusinesses and liability for animal waste. Environmental Science & Policy, 6(2), 181–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pritchard, W. S. (1984). PCAVR: a portable laboratory program for performing varimax-rotated principal components analysis of event-related potentials. Brain Research Bulletin, 13(3), 465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pruss, A., Giroult, E., Rushbrook, P., & Prüss, A. (1999). Safe management of wastes from healthcare activities. World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  33. Rauf, M. U. A., Muhammad Danish, S., Muhammad Osama, A., Gulrays, A., Sina, A., & Muhammad Ashraf, M. (2013). HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in garbage scavengers of Karachi. Jpma the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 63(6), 798–802.Google Scholar
  34. Salkin, I. F. (2003). Conventional and alternative technologies for the treatment of infectious waste. Journal of Material Cycles & Waste Management, 5(1), 0009–0012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schaub, R. T., & Stieglitz, R. D. (2000). P01.129 Three syndromes of schizophrenia—results of an EFA - CFA - crossvalidation approach. European Psychiatry, 15(2), s354–s354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shunze, W., & Ning, S. (2005). Present conditions and countermeasures of medical waste management in China.[J]. Environmental Protection(1), 36–38.Google Scholar
  37. Sobia, M., Batool, S. A., & Chaudhry, M. N. (2014). Characterization of hospital waste in Lahore, Pakistan. 中华医学杂志 (英文版), 127(9), 1732–1736.Google Scholar
  38. Viswanathan, M., & Kayande, U. (2012). Commentary on “common method bias in marketing: causes, mechanisms, and procedural remedies”. Journal of Retailing, 88(4), 556–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. WHO (2004). Safe health-care waste management: policy paper.Google Scholar
  40. WHO. (2010). WHO best practices for injections and related procedures toolkit. Who Best Practices for Injections & Related Procedures Toolkit, 28(3), 287–301.Google Scholar
  41. Williams, B., Mckenna, L., French, J., & Dousek, S. (2013). The clinical teaching preference questionnaire (CTPQ): an exploratory factor analysis. Nurse Education Today, 33(8), 814–817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wilson, E. J., Klass, A. B., & Bergan, S. (2009). Assessing a liability regime for carbon capture and storage. Energy Procedia, 1(1), 4575–4582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Economics and ManagementSoutheast UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.School of Economics and ManagementNanjing University of Science and TechnologyNanjingChina
  3. 3.Institute of Business AdministrationUniversity of SindhJamshoroPakistan
  4. 4.Department of Public AdministrationUniversity of SindhJamshoroPakistan

Personalised recommendations