Advertisement

A hybrid model for evaluating exposure of the general population in Israel to air pollutants

  • Ilan Levy
  • Isabella Karakis
  • Tamar Berman
  • Moshe Amitay
  • Zohar Barnett-ItzhakiEmail author
Article
  • 38 Downloads

Abstract

Exposure to air pollution is associated with a wide range of health effects, including increased respiratory symptoms, cancer, reproductive and birth defects, and premature death. Air quality measurements by standardized measuring equipment, although accurate, can only provide an estimate for part of the population, with decreasing accuracy further away from the monitoring sites. Estimating pollution levels over large geographical domains requires the use of air quality models which ideally incorporate air quality measurements. In order to estimate actual exposure of the population to air pollution (population-weighted concentrations of air pollutants), there is a need to combine data from air quality models with population density data. Here we present the results of exposure estimates for the entire population of Israel using a chemical transport model combined with measurements from the national monitoring network. We evaluated the individual exposure levels for the entire population to several air pollutants based on census tract units. Using this hybrid model, we found that the entire population of Israel is exposed to concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 that exceed the target values but are below the environmental values according to the Israeli Clean Air Law. In addition, we found and that over 1.5 million residents are exposed to NOx at concentrations higher than the target values. This data may help decision makers develop targeted interventions to reduce the concentrations of specific pollutants, based on population-weighted exposure.

Keywords

Ambient air pollution Population-weighted exposure Chemical transport model PM2.5 PM10 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The work of the last author was supported by the Environment and Health Fund, Jerusalem, Israel.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Disclaimer

The views expressed in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Israeli Ministry of Environmental Protection.

Supplementary material

10661_2019_7960_MOESM1_ESM.docx (15 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 15 kb)

References

  1. Central Bureau of Statistics (2017). Israel population. http://www.cbs.gov.il/publications18/yarhon0718/pdf/b1.pdf. Accessed 19 Nov 2018.
  2. Directorate OECD Environment (2017). The rising cost of ambient air pollution in the 21st century. Results for the BRIICS and the OECD countries.Google Scholar
  3. EU Joint Research Centre (2018). EDGAR - Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research. http://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/. Accessed 19 Nov 2018.
  4. European Environment Agency (2018). Exceedance of air quality standards in urban areas. https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/exceedance-of-air-quality-limit-3/assessment-4. Accessed 19 Nov 2018
  5. Eze, I., Hemkens, L., Bucher, H., Hoffmann, B., Schindler, C., Künzli, N., … Probst-Hensch, N. (2015). Association between ambient air pollution and diabetes mellitus in Europe and North America: systematic review and meta-analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives, 123(5), 381–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ginsberg, G., Kaliner, E., & Grotto, I. (2016). Mortality, hospital days and expenditures attributable to ambient air pollution from particulate matter in Israel. Israel Journal of Health Policy Research, 5(51).Google Scholar
  7. Health Effects Institute (2018). State of Global Air 2018. https://www.stateofglobalair.org/. Accessed 19 Nov 2018.
  8. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (2018). Global Burden of Disease (GBD). http://www.healthdata.org/gbd. Accessed 19 Nov 2018.
  9. Ministry of Environment Protection (2018a). Annual air quality reports (Hebrew). http://www.sviva.gov.il/subjectsEnv/SvivaAir/AirQualityData/NationalAirMonitoing/Pages/AirMoritoringReports.aspx. Accessed 19 Nov 2018.
  10. Ministry of Environment Protection (2018b). Report on air quality monitoring trends in Israel 2001-2013. http://www.svivaaqm.net/. Accessed 19 Nov 2018.
  11. Monteiro, A., Miranda, A., Borrego, C., Vautard, R., Ferreira, J., & Perez, A. (2007). Long-term assessment of particulate matter using CHIMERE model. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 7726–7738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Porta, D., Narduzzi, S., Badaloni, C., Bucci, S., Cesaroni, G., Colelli, V., … Forastiere, F. (2016). Air pollution and cognitive development at age 7 in a prospective Italian birth cohort. Epidemiology, 27(2), 228–36.Google Scholar
  13. Shafran-Nathan, R., Levy, I., Levin, N., & Broday, D. (2017a). Ecological bias in environmental health studies: the problem of aggregation of multiple data sources. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health, 10(4), 411–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Shafran-Nathan, R., Yuval, Levy, I., & Broday, D. (2017b). Exposure estimation errors to nitrogen oxides on a population scale due to daytime activity away from home. Science of Total Environment, 580, 1401–1409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Simoni, M., Baldacci, S., Sara Maio, S., Cerrai, S., Sarno, G., & Viegi, G. (2015). Adverse effects of outdoor pollution in the elderly. Journal of Thoracic Disease, 7(1), 34–45.Google Scholar
  16. Sram, R., Veleminsky, M., Veleminsky, M., & Stejskalová, J. (2017). The impact of air pollution to central nervous system in children and adults. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 38(6), 389–396.Google Scholar
  17. State of Israrel (2008). Clean Air Law. https://www.nevo.co.il/law_html/Law01/999_978.htm (Hebrew) Accessed 26 November 2019.
  18. WHO, & World Health Organizaion (2006). WHO Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/69477/WHO_SDE_PHE_OEH_06.02_eng.pdf;jsessionid=EB21C3189E1BD9441D93.C114C68EAB15?sequence=1. Accessed 19 Nov 2018.
  19. World Health Organization (2018). Ambient air quality and health. http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ambient-(outdoor)-air-quality-and-health. Accessed 19 Nov 2018.
  20. Yuval, Levy, I., & Broday, D. M. (2017). Improving modeled air pollution concentration maps by residual interpolation. Science of Total Environment, 598, 780–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Air Quality and Climate ChangeMinistry of Environmental ProtectionTel AvivIsrael
  2. 2.Public Health ServicesMinistry of HealthJerusalemIsrael
  3. 3.Ashkelon Academic CollegeAshkelonIsrael
  4. 4.Department of Health Promotion, School of Public Health, Sackler Faculty of MedicineTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael
  5. 5.School of EngineeringRuppin Academic CenterEmek HeferIsrael
  6. 6.Research Center for Health InformaticsRuppin Academic CenterEmek HeferIsrael
  7. 7.Bioinformatics Department, School of Life and Health ScienceJerusalem College of TechnologyJerusalemIsrael

Personalised recommendations