Geographical mapping and modelling of noise pollution from industrial motors: a case study of the Mbalmayo Thermal Power Plant in Cameroon
- 42 Downloads
To be able to geographically map, model and evaluate noisy sound emissions from industrial motors, emphases have been laid on various phenomena linked to the propagation of sound waves and their effects on the environment. The failure to respect factory-servicing norms coupled with the depreciation of parts of an industrial motor lead to additional sound production, which due to an accumulation in acoustic power and pressure levels contributes to environmental noise pollution. In this work, a study has been carried out on environmental noise pollution from a thermal power plant in Cameroon, using empirical, diagrammatic, analytical and noise map elaboration methods, with the aim of proposing an optimal protection of the surroundings of the thermal plant from the noise pollution. The results obtained show a similarity in propagation of acoustic pressure and power levels for the different types of frequencies considered. Besides these, the study has revealed that the inhabitants are exposed to sound levels higher than the upper limit of 50 dB and above the alert threshold level of 80 dB. At the geo-localized motors of the plant, the primary sources of acoustic power levels were found to fall within the range from 60 to 98 dB, which is very close to the acoustic pressure levels of between 60 and 95 dB. Due to dispersion of sound, the acoustic power levels are also felt at different points around the plant, considered here as secondary sources. From a general point of view, the observed distribution of the iso-sound contours from the collected data and their general NE-SW orientations show the development of new sources due to cumulative effects and superposition of sound waves at regular intervals. At the same time, the acoustic power and pressure levels have been found to be higher than 80 dB, which is the threshold value for human hearing. This therefore is considered detrimental to human health and wellbeing, provoking the need for a more profound investigation on the existing correlation between levels of sound due to stationary sources and frequency in a high sound medium and elaborating a strategic noise map for the town of Mbalmayo and its environs.
KeywordsFrequency Mapping Noise pollution Power Pressure Sound
The authors wish to express their gratitude to ENEO who permit them to take a collect data within the Mbalmayo Thermal Power Plant.
- Andéol, G., et al. (2010). Localisation sonore et capacité d'analyse spectrale de l'auditeur. In Lyon: CEDEX F-13402 (p. 65).Google Scholar
- Canetto, P., & Geneviève, J. (2007). Technique de réduction du bruit en entreprise. Montpellier: INRS.Google Scholar
- Cetin, M. A. (2015a). Determining the bioclimatic comfort in Kastamonu City. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4861-3.
- Cetin M. b. (2015b). Using GIS analysis to assess urban green space in terms of accessibility: case study in Kutahya. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, Vol. 22, No. 5, 420 – 424. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504509.2015.1061066.
- Cetin, M., et al. (2018). A study on the determination of the natural park’s sustainable tourism potential. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 190(3):167 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-018-6534-5.
- CSTC. (2001). Acoustique Environnementale Chap02: Mesurage du bruit de l’environnement (p. 53). C.S construction.Google Scholar
- CSTC. (2004). Acoustique environnementale. Chapitre 02.1: Mesurage du bruit de l’environnement (p53). BRUXELLES: GEMBLOUX.Google Scholar
- CSTC. (2006). Acoustique environnementale, Chap7 : Bruit des installations techniques (p. 111). Bruxelles: GEMBLOUX. Université de Liège,: C.S. construction.Google Scholar
- Dauchez, N., & Al. (2010). Optimisation Acoustique de paroi par Algorithme génétique et influence de l'habillage par une couche poreuse. Congrès Francais D'acoustique, vol, 12-16, 5.Google Scholar
- Dennis A. Bohn (1988). Environmental effects on the speed of sound. Rane Corporation, Mukilteo, WA 98275 USA. Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, Vol. 36, No. 4.Google Scholar
- Directive, E. N. (2002). Directive 2002/49/EC of the European parliament and of the Cuncil of 25june 2002 relating to the assessment and management of environmental noise. Paris: Ministere de l'environnement.Google Scholar
- Golden Software. (2015). Surface Mapping System Version. London: Brevet n° Version 13.0.383 GoldenGoogle Scholar
- Grigolato, S. (2018). Assessment of noise level and noise propagation generated by light-lift helicopters in mountain natural environments. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-018-6464-2,15.
- IEC1260. (1995). Electroacoustics- octave band and fractional-octave-band filters. LondonGoogle Scholar
- IS0 3744. (1994). Determination of sound power levels of noise sources using sound pressure Engineering method in an essentially free field over a reflecting plane. BRUXELLES: GEMBLOUX.Google Scholar
- Isaaks, E. H., & Srivastava, R. M. (1989). An introduction to applied geostatistics. New York: NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- ISO/DIS. 9613-2.2. (1994). Acoustics-attenuation of sound during propagation outdoors, part 2: general method of calculationGoogle Scholar
- ISO8297. (1994). Acoustics: détermination of sound power levels of multisource industrial plants for the evaluation of sound-pressure levels in the environment- Engineering methodGoogle Scholar
- Khanindra, P. A. T. H. A. K. (1996). These, modelling and prediction of environmental noise levels near mechanised surface mines and quarries. London: Imperial university of London college of science Technology and medicine, Department of earth resources engineering.Google Scholar
- Lamancusa, J. S. (2009). Outdoor sound propagation Inside (p. 19). Penn State: Wiley Interscience,NOISE CONTROL.Google Scholar
- Nikola Lilic and et al. (2018). Dust and noise environmental impact assessment and control in Serbian mining practice. Minerals doi:10.3390/min8020034 http://www.mdpi.com/journal/minerals, vol 8, pages 34.Google Scholar
- Owens C. (2004). Noise control Dising Guide. U.S.A. TOLEDO: OHIO PARKWAY 1-800-GET-PINKGoogle Scholar
- R.O.F.E (2011). World Health Organization, Burden of disease from environmental noise,World Health Organization, Bonn, 2011.Google Scholar
- S.F.A. (2010). Méthode acoustique et caractérisation expérimentale des champs sonores Traitement du signal en acoustique. France: SFA (Societe Francaise de l'Acoustique) Le livre blanc de l’acoustique.Google Scholar
- Tonin, R. (1993). Computer methods and software for simulating environmental pollution and its averse effects. In P. Zannetti (Ed.), Elsvier Applied Science Environmental Noise Modelling (Vol. 1).Google Scholar
- Trikootam, C. S., & Hornikx, M. (2019). The wind effect on sound propagation over urban areas: Experimental approach with an uncontrolled sound source. Building and Environment 149:561-570Google Scholar
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2004). Description of model formulation. NC, USA : U.S. Environmental, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Emissions Monitoring and Analysis Division: Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.Google Scholar
- Vignes, P. (2016). Directive Eropéenne n°2002/49/CE. Plan de prevention du bruit dans l'environoment. Versaille: Bureau de l'Amenagement du territoire.Google Scholar
- Wenmaekers, R. H. C., & al. (2008). Air absorption error in room acoustical modeling. Eindhoven University of Technolog (p. 11). Paris: Euronoise. France.Google Scholar
- William, J., & al. (2013). Perception of soundscapes: aAn interdisciplinary approach. Applied Acoustics, 224–231(74), 8 pages.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization (WHO). (1999). Guidelines for comunity noise. In Edited by Birgitta Berghund. Thomas Lindvall: Dietrich H. Schela http://www.who.int/docstore/peh/noise/guidelines2.html.Google Scholar
- Yucedag, C., & al. (2018). Identifying and assessing environmental awareness of hotel and restaurant employees' attitudes in the Amasra District of Bartin. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 8.Google Scholar