Advertisement

Mobility, distribution, and potential risk assessment of selected trace elements in soils of the Nile Delta, Egypt

  • Fathy Elbehiry
  • Heba Elbasiouny
  • Hassan El-Ramady
  • Eric C. BrevikEmail author
Article
  • 40 Downloads

Abstract

Environmental pollution has received considerable attention over the last 50 years. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in pollution of the Nile Delta, Egypt, which is one of the longest settled deltaic systems in the world. Pollution in the delta is increasingly recognized as a serious health concern that requires proper management of ecosystems. Therefore, this project aimed to study the distribution and assess the risk associated with selected trace elements (TEs) in different soils (i.e., marine, fluvial, and lacustrine parent materials) in the northern Nile Delta. Mehlich-3 extraction was used to determine the availability of antimony, vanadium, strontium, and molybdenum in agro-ecosystems in this area and their spatial distributions were investigated. Five indices were used to assess ecological risk. Results showed that TEs were higher in the southern part of the study area because it is affected by multiple pollution sources. The available concentrations of TEs were Sr < V < Sb < Mo. The bioavailability of Sr was highest among the studied TEs. The studied indices suggested the study area was moderately polluted by Sr and Sb. Furthermore, the results showed that marine soils had higher TE levels then lacustrine and fluvial soils. The ecological risk assessment indicated that V and Mo were of natural origin, while Sr and Sb were anthropogenically linked. Therefore, the situation calls for planning to reduce pollution sources, especially in the protected north Nile Delta, so these productive soils do not threaten human and ecological health.

Keywords

Trace elements Risk assessment Spatial distribution Nile Delta Kafrelsheikh 

Notes

References

  1. Abdi, M. R., Saraee, K. R. E., Fard, M. R., & Ghahfarokhi, M. B. (2015). Potential health concerns of trace elements and mineral content in commonly consumed greenhouse vegetables in Isfahan, Iran. Advanced Biomedical Research, 4(1), 214.  https://doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.166152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abu Khatita, A. M. (2011). Assessment of soil and sediment contamination in the Middle Nile Delta area (Egypt)—geo-environmental study using combined sedimentological, geophysical and geochemical methods. Doctoral thesis. Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Natur wissenschaftliche Fakultät, Germany.Google Scholar
  3. ADEQ. (2016). Emerging contaminants in Arizona water. Phoenix: Arizona Department of Environmental Quality.Google Scholar
  4. Aitta, A., El-Ramady, H., Alshaal, T., El-Henawy, A., Shams, M., Talha, N., Elbehiry, F., & Brevik, E. (2019). Ecological risk assessment and spatial distribution of soil trace elements around Kitchener drain in the Northern Nile Delta, Egypt. Agriculture, 9, 152.  https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9070152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, C. G. (2012). The metallurgy of antimony. Chemie der Erde – Geochemistry, 72, 3–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemer.2012.04.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Angula, E. (1996). The Tomlinson Pollution Index applied to heavy metal, Mussel–Watch data: a useful index to assess coastal pollution. Science of the Total Environment, 187, 19–56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(96)05128-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anju, M., & Banerjee, D. K. (2012). Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metals in soils of a Pb–Zn mining area, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 184, 4191–4206.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-2255-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Appleton, J. D., & Cave, M. R. (2018). Variation in soil chemistry related to different classes and eras of urbanisation in the London area. Applied Geochemistry, 90, 13–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2017.12.024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burger, A., & Lichtscheidl, I. (2019). Strontium in the environment: review about reactions of plants towards stable and radioactive strontium isotopes. Science of the Total Environment, 653, 1458–1512.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.10.312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Casado, M., Anawar, H. M., Garcia-Sanchez, A., & Regina, I. S. (2007). Antimony and arsenic uptake by plants in an abandoned mining area. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 38(9-10), 1255–1275.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00103620701328412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen, C. W., Kao, C. M., Chen, C. F., & Dong, C. D. (2007). Distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in the sediments of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan. Chemosphere, 66(8), 1431–1440.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.09.030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cheng, H., Li, M., Zhao, C., Li, K., Peng, M., Qin, A., & Cheng, X. (2014). Overview of trace metals in the urban soil of 31 metropolises in China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 139, 31–52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2013.08.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cidu, R., Biddau, R., Dore, E., & Vacca, A. (2013). Antimony dispersion at abandoned mines in Sardinia, Italy. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, 7, 171–174.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeps.2013.03.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cornelis, G., Van Gerven, T., & Vandecasteele, C. (2012). Antimony leaching from MSWI bottom ash: modeling of the effect of pH and carbonation. Waste Management, 32, 278–286.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2011.09.018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dehghani, S., Moore, F., Keshavarzi, B., & Hale, B. A. (2017). Health risk implications of potentially toxic metals in street dust and surface soil of Tehran, Iran. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 136, 92–103.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.10.037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. El Banna, M. M., & Frihy, O. E. (2009). Natural and anthropogenic influences in the northeastern coast of the Nile delta, Egypt. Environmental Geology, 57, 1593–1602.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-008-1434-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Elbasiouny, H., & Elbehiry, F. (2019). Geology. In H. El-Ramady Alshaal, T. N. Bakr, T. Elbana, E. Mohamed, & A.-A. Belal (Eds.), The soils of Egypt (pp. 93–110). Cham: Springer Nature.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Elbasiouny, H., Abowaly, M., Abu Alkheir, A., & Gad, A. (2014). Spatial variation of soil carbon and nitrogen pools by using ordinary kriging method in an area of north Nile Delta, Egypt. Catena, 113, 70–78.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2013.09.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Elbehiry, F., Elbasiouny, H., & El-Henawy, A. (2017). Boron: spatial distribution in an area of North Nile Delta, Egypt. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 48(3), 294–306.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2016.1269795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Evans, L. J., & Barabash, S. J. (2010). Molybdenum, silver, thallium and vanadium. In P. S. Hooda (Ed.), Trace elements in soils (pp. 515–549). Hoboken: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Feng, R., Wei, C., Tu, S., Ding, Y., Wang, R., & Guo, J. (2013). The uptake and detoxification of antimony by plants: a review. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 96, 28–34.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2013.08.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Frohne, T., Rinklebe, J., & Diaz-Bone, R. A. (2014). Contamination of floodplain soils along the Wupper River, Germany, with As, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb, and Zn and the impact of pre-definite redox variations on the mobility of these elements. Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal, 23(7), 779–799.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15320383.2014.872597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fu, J., Hu, X., Tao, X. C., Yu, H. X., & Zhang, X. W. (2013). Risk and toxicity assessments of heavy metals in sediments and fishes from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake, China. Chemosphere, 93, 1887–1895.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.06.061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. George, J., Masto, R. E., Ram, L. C., Das, T. B., Rout, T. K., & Mohan, M. (2015). Human exposure risks for metals in soil near a coal-fired power-generating plant. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 68, 451–561.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-014-0111-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Giuseppe, D. D., Antisari, L. V., Ferronato, C., & Bianchini, G. (2014). New insights on mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in soils of the Padanian alluvial plain (Ferrara Province, northern Italy). Chemie der Erde, 74, 615–623.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemer.2014.02.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gu, J., Salem, A., & Chen, Z. (2013). Lagoons of the Nile delta, Egypt, heavy metal sink: with a special reference to the Yangtze estuary of China. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 117, 282–292.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2012.06.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gu, Y.-G., Gao, Y.-P., & Lin, Q. (2016). Contamination, bio accessibility and human health risk of heavy metals in exposed-lawn soils from 28 urban parks in southern China’s largest city, Guangzhou. Applied Geochemistry, 67, 52–58.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2016.02.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Guo, X. J., Wu, Z. J., He, M. C., Meng, X. G., Jin, X., Qiu, N., & Zhang, J. (2014). Adsorption of antimony onto iron oxyhydroxides: adsorption behavior and surface structure. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 276, 339–345.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.05.025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hakanson, L. (1980). An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution-control—a sedimentological approach. Water Research, 14, 975–1001.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(80)90143-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Herath, I., Vithanag, M., & Bundschuh, J. (2017). Antimony as a global dilemma: geochemistry, mobility, fate and transport. Environmental Pollution, 223, 545–559.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.01.057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hu, B., Li, J., Zhao, J., Yang, J., Bai, F., & Dou, Y. (2013). Heavy metal in surface sediments of the Liaodong Bay, Bohai Sea: distribution, contamination, and sources. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185(6), 5071–5083.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-012-2926-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Huang, Y., Chen, Z., & Liu, W. (2012). Influence of iron plaque and cultivars on antimony uptake by and translocation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings exposed to Sb(III) or Sb(V). Plant and Soil, 352, 41–49.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-011-0973-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ilgen, A. G., & Trainor, T. P. (2011). Sb(III) and Sb(V) sorption onto Al-rich phases: hydrous Al oxide and the clay minerals kaolinite KGa-1b and oxidized and reduced nontronite NAu-1. Environmental Science & Technology, 46, 843–851.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es203027v.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jiménez-Ballesta, R., García-Navarro, F. J., Bravo, S., Amoros, J. A., Pérez de los Reyes, C., & Mejias, M. (2017). Environmental assessment of potential toxic elements contents in the inundated floodplain área of Tablas de Daimiel wetland (Spain). Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 39, 1159–1177.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-016-9884-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kabata-Pendias, A. (2011). Trace elements in soils and plants (4th ed.). Boca Raton: CRC.Google Scholar
  36. Kabata-Pendias, A., & Mukherjee, A. B. (2007). Trace elements from soil to human. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kabata-Pendias, A., & Sadurski, W. (2004). Trace elements and compounds in soil. In E. Merian, M. Anke, M. Ihnat, & M. Stoeppler (Eds.), Elements and their compounds in the environment (2nd ed., pp. 79–99). Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kadunas, V., Budavicius, R., Gregorauskiene, V., Katinas, V., Kliuugiene, E., Radzevicius, A., & Taraskievicius, R. (1999). Geochemical atlas of Lithuania. Vilnius: Geological Institute.Google Scholar
  39. Khaledian, Y., Pereira, P., Brevik, E. C., Pundyte, N., & Paliulis, D. (2017). The influence of organic carbon and ph on heavy metals, potassium, and magnesium levels in Lithuanian Podzols. Land Degradation and Development, 28, 345–354.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Khalil, M., & El-Gharabawy, S. (2016). Evaluation of mobile metals in sediments of Burullus Lagoon, Egypt. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 109, 655–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kowalska, J., Mazurek, R., Gąsiorek, M., Setlak, M., Zaleski, T., & Waroszewski, J. (2016). Soil pollution indices conditioned by Medieval metallurgical activity: a case study from Krakow (Poland). Environmental Pollution, 218, 1023–1036.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.04.065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kubota, J. (1977). Molybdenum status of United States soils and plants. In W. R. Chappell & K. K. Peterson (Eds.), Molybdenum in the environment (pp. 555–581). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  43. Kumpiene, J., Giagnoni, L., Marschner, B., Denys, S., Mench, M., Adriaensen, K., Vangronsveld, J., Puschenreiter, M., & Renella, M. (2017). Assessment of methods for determining bioavailability of trace elements in soils: a review. Pedosphere, 27(3), 389–406.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(17)60337-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Leleyter, L., & Probst, J. L. (1999). A new sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace elements in river sediments. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 73, 109–128.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03067319908032656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Li, P., Qian, H., Howard, K. W., Wu, J., & Lyu, X. (2014). Anthropogenic pollution and variability of manganese in alluvial sediments of the Yellow River, Ningxia, northwest China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 186(3), 1385–1398.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-013-3461-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lin, Y., Ma, J., Zhang, Z., Zhu, Y., Hou, H., Zhao, L., Sun, Z., Xue, W., & Shi, H. (2018). Linkage between human population and trace elements in soils of the Pearl River Delta: implications for source identification and risk assessment. Science of the Total Environment, 610–611, 944–950.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Liu, J., Ma, K., & Qu, L. (2015). Ecological risk assessments and context-dependence analysis of heavy metal contamination in the sediments of mangrove swamp in Leizhou Peninsula, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 100, 224–230.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.08.046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Liu, X., Jiang, J., Yan, Y., Dai, Y., Deng, B., Ding, S., Su, S., Sun, W., Li, Z., & Gan, Z. (2018). Distribution and risk assessment of metals in water, sediments, and wild fish from Jinjiang River in Chengdu, China. Chemosphere, 196, 45–52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Maguire, R. O., Rubæk, G. H., Haggard, B. E., & Foy, B. H. (2009). Critical evaluation of the implementation of mitigation options for phosphorus from field to catchment scales. Journal of Environmental Quality, 38(5), 1989–1997.  https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2007.0659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mazurek, R., Kowalska, J., Gasiorek, M., Zadrozny, P., Jozefowska, A., Zaleski, T., Kepka, W., MarylaTymczuk, M., & Orłowska, K. (2017). Assessment of heavy metals contamination in surface layers of Roztocze National Park forest soils (SE Poland) by indices of pollution. Chemosphere, 168, 839–850.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.10.126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mehlich, A. (1984). Mehlich 3 soil test extractant: a modification of Mehlich 2 extractant. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 15, 1409–1416.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00103628409367568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mehr, M. R., Keshavarzi, B., Moore, F., Sharifi, R., Lahijanzadeh, A., & Kermani, M. (2017). Distribution, source identification and health risk assessment of soil heavy metals in urban areas of Isfahan province, Iran. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 132, 16–26.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2017.04.026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mishra, P., Singh, S. K., Srivastava, P. C., & Singh, S. (2006). Distribution of molybdenum and boron in some soils of northern alluvial plain of UP and Uttaranchal in relation to soil characteristics. Agropedology, 16(1), 60–62.Google Scholar
  54. Morgan, R. (2013). Soil, heavy metals, and human health. In E. C. Brevik & L. C. Burgess (Eds.), Soils and human health (pp. 59–82). Boca Raton: CRC.Google Scholar
  55. Müller, G. (1979). Heavy-metals in sediment of the Rhine-changes since 1971. Umschau in Wissenschaft und Technik, 79(24), 778–783.Google Scholar
  56. Munthali, M. W., Johan, E., Aono, H., & Matsue, N. (2015). Cs+ and Sr2+ adsorption selectivity of zeolites in relation to radioactive decontamination. Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies, 3, 245–250.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jascer.2015.04.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Murphy, J., & Riley, J. P. (1962). A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analytica Chimica Acta, 27, 31–36.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(00)88444-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Negm, A. M., Saavedra, O., & El-Adawy, A. (2017). Nile Delta biography: challenges and opportunities. In A. M. Negm, O. Saavedra, & A. El-Adawy (Eds.), The Nile Delta (pp. 3–18). New York: Springer International Publishing AG.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nelson, D. W., & Sommers, L. E. (1996). Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In J. M. Bigham (Ed.), Methods of soil analysis: part 3—chemical methods (pp. 961–1010). Madison: Soil Science Society of America.Google Scholar
  60. Pekey, H., Karakas, D., Ayberk, S., Tolun, L., & Bakoglu, M. (2004). Ecological risk assessment using trace elements from surface sediments of Izmit Bay (northeastern Marmara Sea) Turkey. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 48, 946–953.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2003.11.023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Roussiez, V., Ludwig, W., Probst, J. L., & Monaco, A. (2005). Background levels of heavy metals in surficial sediments of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean): an approach based on 133Cs normalization and lead isotope measurements. Environmental Pollution, 138(1), 167–177.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2005.02.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rowell, D. L. (1995). Soil Science Methods & Applications. Library of Congress Cataloging – in – Publication data, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  63. Schwarz, G., & Belaidi, A. A. (2013). Molybdenum in human health and disease. Metal Ions in Life Sciences, 13, 415–450.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7500-8_13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Shangguan, Y., Zhao, L., Qin, Y., Hou, H., & Zhang, N. (2016). Antimony release from contaminated mine soils and its migration in four typical soils using lysimeter experiments. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 133, 1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.06.030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sparks, D. L., Page, A. L., Helmke, P. A., Loppert, R. H., Soltanpour, P. N., Tabatabai, M. A., Johnston, C. T., & Summner, M. E. (1996). Methods of soil analysis: chemical methods, Part 3. Madison, WI: Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society of America.Google Scholar
  66. Steffan, J. J., Brevik, E. C., Burgess, L. C., & Cerdà, A. (2018). The effect of soil on human health: an overview. European Journal of Soil Science, 69, 159–171.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.12451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sumner, M.E., Miller, W.P. (1996). Cation exchange capacity and exchange coefficients. In: Sparks, D.L. (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3. Chemical Methods. Soil Science Society of America, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, pp. 1201–1229.Google Scholar
  68. Sun, H. (2018). Association of soil selenium, strontium, and magnesium concentrations with Parkinson’s disease mortality rates in the USA. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 40, 349–357.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-017-9915-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sutherland, R. A. (2000). Bed sediment-associated trace metals in an urban stream, Oahu, Hawaii. Environmental Geology, 39(6), 611–627.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s002540050473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tapia, J., Davenport, J., Townley, B., Dorador, C., Schneider, B., Tolorza, V., & von Tümpling, W. (2018). Sources, enrichment, and redistribution of As, Cd, Cu, Li, Mo, and Sb in the Northern Atacama Region, Chile: implications for arid watersheds affected by mining. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 185, 33–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2017.10.021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Telford, K., Maher, W., Krikowa, F., Foster, S., Ellwood, M. J., Ashley, P. M., Lockwood, P. V., & Wilson, S. C. (2009). Bioaccumulation of antimony and arsenic in a highly contaminated stream adjacent to the Hillgrove Mine, NSW, Australia. Environmental Chemistry, 6, 133–143.  https://doi.org/10.1071/EN08097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tian, K., Huang, B., Xing, Z., & Hu, W. (2017). Geochemical baseline establishment and ecological risk evaluation of heavy metals in greenhouse soils from Dongtai, China. Ecological Indicators, 72, 510–520.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.08.037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Tiberg, C., Bendz, D., Theorin, G., & Kleja, D. B. (2017). Evaluating solubility of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd in pyrite cinder using leaching tests and geochemical modelling. Applied Geochemistry, 85, 106–117.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2017.09.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tomlinson, D. C., Wilson, J. G., Harris, C. R., & Jeffery, D. W. (1980). Problems in the assessment of heavy metals levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index. Helgoländer wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, 33, 566–575.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02414780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Vithanage, M., Rajapaksha, A. U., Dou, X., Bolan, N. S., Yang, J. E., & Ok, Y. S. (2013). Surface complexation modeling and spectroscopic evidence of antimony adsorption on iron-oxide-rich red earth soils. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 406, 217–224.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2013.05.053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Vodyanitskii, Y. N. (2016). Standards for the contents of heavy metals in soils of some states. Annals of Agrarian Science, 14, 257–263.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aasci.2016.08.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wang, W., Lai, Y., Ma, Y., Liu, Z., Wang, S., & Chenglin, H. (2016). Heavy metal contamination of urban topsoil in a petrochemical industrial city in Xinjiang, China. Journal of Arid Land, 8(6), 871–880.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40333-016-0057-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wilson, S. C., Lockwood, P. V., Ashley, P. M., & Tighe, M. (2010). The chemistry and behavior of antimony in the soil environment with comparisons to arsenic: a critical review. Environmental Pollution, 158, 1169–1181.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2009.10.045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Xia, P., Meng, X., Feng, A., Yin, P., Zhang, J., & Wang, X. (2012). Geochemical characteristics of heavy metals in coastal sediments from the northern Beibu gulf (SW China): the background levels and recent contamination. Environmental Earth Sciences, 66(5), 1337–1344.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-011-1343-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Xianmao, L., Guogang, H., & Huijan, W. (1990). Effects of molybdenum on etiology, pathogenesis and prevention of esophageal cancer. In T. Jian’an, P. J. Peterson, L. Ribang, & W. Wuyi (Eds.), Environmental life elements and health (pp. 309–317). Beijing: Science Press.Google Scholar
  81. Yildiz, N., Aydemir, O., Aydin, A., & Ulusu, F. (1998). Suitability of Mehlich III method for assessing the plant nutrients in Erzurum plain and acid soils. In D. Anac & P. Martin-PrÉvel (Eds.), Improved crop quality by nutrient management (pp. 281–284). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  82. Zhang, J., & Liu, C. L. (2002). Riverine composition and estuarine geochemistry of particulate metals in China—weathering features, anthropogenic impact and chemical fluxes. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 54(6), 1051–1070.  https://doi.org/10.1006/ecss.2001.0879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zhao, Q., Liu, S., Deng, L., Dong, S., & Wang, C. (2013). Longitudinal distribution of heavy metals in sediments of a canyon reservoir in Southwest China due to dam construction. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185, 6101–6110.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-012-3010-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Central Laboratory of Environmental StudiesKafrelsheikh UniversityKafr El-SheikhEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Home Economy FacultyAl-Azhar UniversityTantaEgypt
  3. 3.Soil and Water Dept., Faculty of AgricultureKafrelsheikh UniversityKafr El-SheikhEgypt
  4. 4.Departments of Natural Sciences and Agriculture and Technical StudiesDickinson State UniversityDickinsonUSA

Personalised recommendations