Landfill site selection via integrating multi-criteria decision techniques with geographic information systems: a case study in Naqadeh, Iran

  • Hassan Khorsandi
  • Abdollah Faramarzi
  • Ali Ahmad Aghapour
  • Seyed Javad JafariEmail author


Sanitary landfill is still the most significant and reasonable and the least expensive waste disposal method. The process of selecting a landfill site with minimal adverse effects on the environment is a complex task, in which numerous criteria need to be taken into account. In the present research, the AHP (analytical hierarchy process) and TOPSIS (technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution) models were used to weigh the layers and prioritize the identified regions, respectively. In the present study, the following criteria were considered: (1) environmental criteria consisting of groundwater depth and distance from rivers, streams, and wetland/dam/lake; (2) physical criteria consisting of geology, slope percentage, distance from faults, heights, soil depth, and aspect; (3) social–economic criteria including the subcriteria land uses and distance from urban centers and villages; and finally, (4) access factors with the subcriteria distance from roads and power lines. After the preparation phase, the maps corresponding to each subscale were weighed in GIS by means of AHP. To weigh the layers and evaluate the inconsistency rate of pairwise comparisons, the Expert Choice software, in which the AHP model can be run, was used. On the output map, 11 highly suitable areas for landfill were identified via the integration of layers and the identified options and were ranked using the TOPSIS technique and five secondary criteria based on experts’ views. Ultimately, area no. 12 was selected as the proposed site for the landfill in Naqadeh County. The results indicated that the combination of multicriteria decision-making models including AHP and TOPSIS can be properly utilized for the purpose of locating.


AHP GIS Landfill TOPSIS Waste management 


Funding information

We appreciate Urmia University of Medical Science for providing financial and instrumental support to conduct this work.


  1. Afzali, A., Samani, J., & Rashid, M. (2011). Municipal landfill site selection for Isfahan City by use of fuzzy logic and analytic hierarchy process. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering, 8(3), 273–284.Google Scholar
  2. Ahmadi, M., Teymouri, P., Dinarvand, F., Hoseinzadeh, M., Babaei, A. A., & Jaafarzadeh, N. (2014). Municipal solid waste landfill site selection using analytical hierarchy process method and geographic information system in Abadan, Iran. Iranian Journal of Health Science, 2(1), 37–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aivaliotis, V., Dokas, I., Hatzigiannakou, M., & Panagiotakopoulos, D. (2004). Functional relationships of landfill and landraise capacity with design and operation parameters. Waste Management & Research, 22(4), 283–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Jarrah, O., & Abu-Qdais, H. (2006). Municipal solid waste landfill siting using intelligent system. Waste Management, 26(3), 299–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bahrani, S., Ebadi, T., Ehsani, H., Yousefi, H., & Maknoon, R. (2016). Modeling landfill site selection by multi-criteria decision making and fuzzy functions in GIS, case study: Shabestar, Iran. Environmental Earth Sciences, 75(4), 337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bertolini, M., Braglia, M., & Carmignani, G. (2006). Application of the AHP methodology in making a proposal for a public work contract. International Journal of Project Management, 24(5), 422–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beskese, A., Demir, H. H., Ozcan, H. K., & Okten, H. E. (2015). Landfill site selection using fuzzy AHP and fuzzy TOPSIS: a case study for Istanbul. Environmental Earth Sciences, 73(7), 3513–3521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Biswas, P., Pramanik, S., & GIRI, B. C. (2016). TOPSIS method for multi-attribute group decision-making under single-valued neutrosophic environment. Neural Computing and Applications, 27(3), 727–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boroumandi, M., Khamehchyian, M., & Nikoudel, M. R. (2014). Hazardous wastes landfill site selection using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) in Zanjan Province. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 16(4), 97–109.Google Scholar
  10. Bzi, K., & Sargolzaii, S. (2015). Site selection for garbage dumping and burial in the city of Zabol using the AHP model. Scientific Journal Management System, 3(1), 143–119.Google Scholar
  11. Chabuk, A. J., Al-Ansari, N., Hussain, H. M., Knutsson, S., & Pusch, R. (2017). GIS-based assessment of combined AHP and SAW methods for selecting suitable sites for landfill in Al-Musayiab Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq. Environmental Earth Sciences, 76(5), 209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chang, N.-B., Parvathinathan, G., & Breeden, J. B. (2008). Combining GIS with fuzzy multicriteria decision-making for landfill siting in a fast-growing urban region. Journal of Environmental Management, 87(1), 139–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Choi, D.-Y., & Oh, K.-W. (2000). ASA and its application to multi-criteria decision making. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 114(1), 89–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Çimren, E., Çatay, B., & Budak, E. (2007). Development of a machine tool selection system using AHP. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 35(3-5), 363–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Demesouka, O., Vavatsikos, A., & Anagnostopoulos, K. (2014). GIS-based multicriteria municipal solid waste landfill suitability analysis: a review of the methodologies performed and criteria implemented. Waste Management & Research, 32(4), 270–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Derakhshandeh, M., & Taleb Beydokhti, T. (2014). Management of landfill locating of urban waste. European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences: Proceedings, 3(3), 32–39.Google Scholar
  17. Eskandari, M., Homaee, M., Mahmoodi, S., & Pazira, E. (2013). Integrating GIS and AHP for municipal solid waste landfill site selection. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 3(4), 588–595.Google Scholar
  18. Hanine, M., Boutkhoum, O., Tikniouine, A., & Agouti, T. (2016). Comparison of fuzzy AHP and fuzzy TODIM methods for landfill location selection. SpringerPlus, 5(1), 501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hejazi, S. A. (2016). Landfill site selection using spatial information technologies and AHP: a case study of Marageh, Iran. Geography and Planning, 19(54), 105–125.Google Scholar
  20. Hoornweg, D., & Bhada-Tata, P. (2012). What a waste: a global review of solid waste management. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  21. Ishizaka, A., & Labib, A. (2009). Analytic hierarchy process and expert choice: benefits and limitations. Or Insight, 22(4), 201–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jafari, H. R., Rafiee, Y., Ramezani Mehrian, M., & Nasiri, H. (2012). Urban landfill site selection using AHP and SAW in GIS environment (case study: Kohkiluye-o-Boyer Ahmad Province, Iran). Journal of Environmental Studies, 38(1), 131–140.Google Scholar
  23. Kharat, M. G., Kamble, S. J., Raut, R. D., Kamble, S. S., & Dhume, S. M. (2016). Modeling landfill site selection using an integrated fuzzy MCDM approach. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 2(2), 53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mahtabi Oghani, M., Najafi, A., & Yunesi, H. (2013). Comparison of TOPSIS and AHP in site selection of municipal solid wastes landfill (case study: Karaj landfill site selection). Iranian Journal of Health and Environment, 6(3), 341–352.Google Scholar
  25. Malczewski, J. (1997). Propagation of errors in multicriteria location analysis: a case study. In G. Fandel & T. Gal (Eds.), Multiple criteria decision making. Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems (Vol. 448). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  26. Mirzaei, M., Salman Mahiny, A., & Mirkarimi, S. H. (2014). Site selection of landfill by using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) (case study: landfill of Golpayegan township). Journal of Natural Environment, 67(1), 105–119.Google Scholar
  27. Mokhtari, M., Hosseini, F., Babaee, A., & Mirhoseini, S. (2015). Application of AHP and TOPSIS models for site selection of municipal solid waste landfill (case study: Lali City). Tolooebehdasht, 14(4), 143–153.Google Scholar
  28. Onüt, S., & Soner, S. (2008). Transshipment site selection using the AHP and TOPSIS approaches under fuzzy environment. Waste Management (New York, N.Y.), 28(9), 1552–1559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pourahmad, A., Habibi, K., Mohammad Zahraei, S., & Nazari Adli, S. (2007). Site selection for urban facility in Babolsar using GIS & fuzzy logic. Environmental Studies, 33(42), 31–42.Google Scholar
  30. Rathore, S., Ahmad, S., & Shirazi, S. (2016). Use of the suitability model to identify landfill sites in Lahore-Pakistan. Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 12, 103–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Romali, N. S., Mokhtar, N., Ishak, W. F. W. & Samah, M. A. A. (2013). Solid waste management: development of AHP model for application of landfill sites selection in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. Symposium on the Analytic Hierarchy Process.Google Scholar
  32. Saaty, T. L. (2008). Decision making with the analytic hierarchy process. International Journal of Services Sciences, 1(1), 83–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Şener, Ş., Şener, E., Nas, B., & Karaguzel, R. (2010). Combining AHP with GIS for landfill site selection: a case study in the Lake Beyşehir catchment area (Konya, Turkey). Waste Management, 30(1), 2037–2046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Şener, Ş., Sener, E., & Karaguzel, R. (2011). Solid waste disposal site selection with GIS and AHP methodology: a case study in Senirkent–Uluborlu (Isparta) Basin, Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 173(1-4), 533–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shih, H.-S., Shyur, H.-J., & Lee, E. S. (2007). An extension of TOPSIS for group decision making. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 45(7-8), 801–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sitorus, F., Cilliers, J. J., & Brito-Parada, P. R. (2019). Multi-criteria decision making for the choice problem in mining and mineral processing: applications and trends. Expert Systems with Applications, 121, 393–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tchobanoglous, G., & Kreith, F. (2002). Handbook of solid waste management. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  38. Tzeng, G., Teng, M., Chen, J., & Opricovic, S. (2002). Multicriteria selection for a restaurant location in Taipei. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 21(2), 171–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vaidya, O. S., & Kumar, S. (2006). Analytic hierarchy process: an overview of applications. European Journal of Operational Research, 169(1), 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hassan Khorsandi
    • 1
  • Abdollah Faramarzi
    • 1
  • Ali Ahmad Aghapour
    • 1
  • Seyed Javad Jafari
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthUrmia University of Medical SciencesUrmiaIran

Personalised recommendations