Evaluating deciduous tree leaves as biomonitors for ambient particulate matter pollution in Pittsburgh, PA, USA

  • Sara E. GilloolyEmail author
  • Drew R. Michanowicz
  • Mike Jackson
  • Leah K. Cambal
  • Jessie L. C. Shmool
  • Brett J. Tunno
  • Sheila Tripathy
  • Daniel J. Bain
  • Jane E. Clougherty


Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution varies spatially and temporally in concentration and composition and has been shown to cause or exacerbate adverse effects on human and ecological health. Biomonitoring using airborne tree leaf deposition as a proxy for particulate matter (PM) pollution has been explored using a variety of study designs, tree species, sampling strategies, and analytical methods. In the USA, relatively few have applied these methods using co-located fine particulate measurements for comparison and relying on one tree species with extensive spatial coverage, to capture spatial variation in ambient air pollution across an urban area. Here, we evaluate the utility of this approach, using a spatial saturation design and pairing tree leaf samples with filter-based PM2.5 across Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, with the goal of distinguishing mobile and stationary sources using PM2.5 composition. Co-located filter and leaf-based measurements revealed some significant associations with traffic and roadway proximity indicators. We compared filter and leaf samples with differing protection from the elements (e.g., meteorology) and PM collection time, which may account for some variance in PM source and/or particle size capture between samples. To our knowledge, this study is among the first to use deciduous tree leaves from a single tree species as biomonitors for urban PM2.5 pollution in the northeastern USA.


Biomonitoring Deciduous tree leaves Particulate matter Urban particulate pollution 



particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm


particulate matter


particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm


black carbon


organic carbon


United States Department of Agriculture


nitrogen dioxide


sulfur dioxide


carbon monoxide


United States Geological Survey


liters per minute


inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry


anhysteretic remanent magnetization


alternating field


direct current


median destructive field of ARM




saturation isothermal remanent magnetization


median destructive field of SIRM


saturation magnetization






nitric acid




remanence ratio


median destructive field of isothermal remanent magnetization


amperes per meter squared


meter squared






pseudo-single domain




single domain

SD (from tables)

standard deviation




exploratory factor analysis


United States Environmental Protection Agency


scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray analysis


particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 1.0 μm




tapered element oscillating microbalance and filter dynamics measurement system



The authors are grateful to Kyra Naumoff Shields from Colorado State University and Joshua Feinberg from University of Minnesota Institute for Rock Magnetism for their mentorship over the course of the study and magnetic analyses, respectively. We also thank Jeffrey Howell for his effort on the pilot study presented in the SI. In addition, we acknowledge Duquesne Light Company for granting monitoring permissions for poles and Tree Pittsburgh for providing street tree data for the study design.

Author contributions

JEC, SEG, and LKC were primarily responsible for study design; BJT, DRM, JLCS, and LKC were responsible for the GIS-based portion of study design; JEC oversaw aspects of study design and implementation. SEG, DRM, LKC, BJT, and ST carried out all fieldwork. SEG and LKC completed all laboratory analyses, with guidance from MJ and DJB. SEG performed statistical analyses with the guidance from JEC, JLCS, BJT, DRM, and ST. All authors have contributed to, read, and approved the final manuscript.


This work was supported by internal University of Pittsburgh Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Funds, University of Pittsburgh Central Research Development Funds, a University of Minnesota Institute for Rock Magnetism fellowship award, and The Heinz Endowments.

Compliance with ethical standards

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

10661_2019_7857_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.7 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1784 kb)


  1. Aksoy, A., Osma, E., & Leblebici, Z. (2012). Spreading pellitory (Parietaria judaica L.): a possible biomonitor of heavy metal pollution. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 44, 123–127.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, J. O., Thundiyil, J. G., & Stolbach, A. (2012). Clearing the air: a review of the effects of particulate matter air pollution on human health. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 8(2), 166–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aničić, M., Spasić, T., Tomašević, M., Rajšić, S., & Tasić, M. (2011). Trace elements accumulation and temporal trends in leaves of urban deciduous trees (Aesculus hippocastanum and Tilia spp.). Ecological Indicators, 11(3), 824–830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baycu, G., Tolunay, D., Özden, H., & Günebakan, S. (2006). Ecophysiological and seasonal variations in Cd, Pb, Zn, and Ni concentrations in the leaves of urban deciduous trees in Istanbul. Environmental Pollution, 143(3), 545–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bell, M. L. (2012). Assessment of the health impacts of particulate matter characteristics. Research Report (Health Effects Institute)(161): 5–38.Google Scholar
  6. Bell, M. L., Ebisu, K., Peng, R. D., Samet, J. M., & Dominici, F. (2009). Hospital admissions and chemical composition of fine particle air pollution. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 179(12), 1115–1120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bell, M. L., Ebisu, K., & Peng, R. D. (2011). Community-level spatial heterogeneity of chemical constituent levels of fine particulates and implications for epidemiological research. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, 21(4), 372–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bertolotti, G., & Gialanella, S. (2014). Review: use of conifer needles as passive samplers of inorganic pollutants in air quality monitoring. Analytical Methods, 6(16), 6208–6222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. City of Lebanon Public Works Department. (2002). Street Tree policy and potential street tree guide: 37.Google Scholar
  10. Clougherty, J. E., Kheirbek, I., Eisl, H. M., Ross, Z., Pezeshki, G., Gorczynski, J. E., Johnson, S., Markowitz, S., Kass, D., & Matte, T. (2013). Intra-urban spatial variability in wintertime street-level concentrations of multiple combustion-related air pollutants: the New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS). Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, 23(3), 232–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Connecticut Invasive Plant Working Group. (2000). Norway maple invasive plant information sheet. from
  12. Cornu, S., Deschatrettes, V., Salvador-Blanes, S., Clozel, B., Hardy, M., Branchut, S., & Le Forestier, L. (2005). Trace element accumulation in Mn—Fe—oxide nodules of a planosolic horizon. Geoderma, 125(1–2), 11–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dalton, R. (2012). ImageJ protocol for calculation of leaf surface area: 4.Google Scholar
  14. Davey Resource Group (2008). City of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania municipal forest resource analysisGoogle Scholar
  15. Davila, A. F., Rey, D., Mohamed, K., Rubio, B., & Guerra, A. P. (2006). Mapping the sources of urban dust in a coastal environment by measuring magnetic parameters of Platanus hispanica leaves. Environmental Science & Technology, 40(12), 3922–3928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dockery, D. W. (2001). Epidemiologic evidence of cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(suppl 4), 483–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dominici, F., Peng, R. D., Bell, M. L., Pham, L., McDermott, A., Zeger, S. L., & Samet, J. M. (2006). Fine particulate air pollution and hospital admission for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. JAMA, 295(10), 1127–1134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dunlop, D. J. and Ö. Özdemir. (1997). Rock Magnetism fundamentals and frontiers. Cambridge Books Online, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Eeftens, M., Tsai, M.-Y., Ampe, C., Anwander, B., Beelen, R., Bellander, T., Cesaroni, G., Cirach, M., Cyrys, J., & de Hoogh, K. (2012). Spatial variation of PM2. 5, PM10, PM2. 5 absorbance and PMcoarse concentrations between and within 20 European study areas and the relationship with NO2—results of the ESCAPE project. Atmospheric Environment, 62, 303–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Espinosa, A. J. F., Rodríguez, M. T., de la Rosa, F. J. B., & Sánchez, J. C. J. (2001). Size distribution of metals in urban aerosols in Seville (Spain). Atmospheric Environment, 35(14), 2595–2601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gesch, D. (2007). The National Elevation Dataset. In Digital elevation model technologies and applications: the DEM users manual. Bethesda: American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.Google Scholar
  22. Gillooly, S. E., Shmool, J. L. C., Michanowicz, D. R., Bain, D. J., Cambal, L. K., Shields, K. N., & Clougherty, J. E. (2016). Framework for using deciduous tree leaves as biomonitors for intraurban particulate air pollution in exposure assessment. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 188(8), 479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gubbins, D. and E. Herrero-Bervera (2007). Encyclopedia of geomagnetism and paleomagnetism. Springer.Google Scholar
  24. Hanesch, M., Scholger, R., & Rey, D. (2003). Mapping dust distribution around an industrial site by measuring magnetic parameters of tree leaves. Atmospheric Environment, 37(36), 5125–5133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hansard, R., Maher, B., & Kinnersley, R. (2011). Biomagnetic monitoring of industry-derived particulate pollution. Environmental Pollution, 159(6), 1673–1681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hansard, R., Maher, B., & Kinnersley, R. (2012). Rapid magnetic biomonitoring and differentiation of atmospheric particulate pollutants at the roadside and around two major industrial sites in the UK. Environmental Science & Technology, 46(8), 4403–4410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hatfield, R. G. (2014). Particle size-specific magnetic measurements as a tool for enhancing our understanding of the bulk magnetic properties of sediments. Minerals, 4(4), 758–787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hofman, J., & Samson, R. (2014). Biomagnetic monitoring as a validation tool for local air quality models: a case study for an urban street canyon. Environment International, 70, 50–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hofman, J., Stokkaer, I., Snauwaert, L., & Samson, R. (2013). Spatial distribution assessment of particulate matter in an urban street canyon using biomagnetic leaf monitoring of tree crown deposited particles. Environmental Pollution, 183, 123–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hofman, J., Wuyts, K., Van Wittenberghe, S., & Samson, R. (2014). On the temporal variation of leaf magnetic parameters: seasonal accumulation of leaf-deposited and leaf-encapsulated particles of a roadside tree crown. Science of the Total Environment, 493, 766–772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hofman, J., Maher, B. A., Muxworthy, A. R., Wuyts, K., Castanheiro, A., & Samson, R. (2017). Biomagnetic monitoring of atmospheric pollution: a review of magnetic signatures from biological sensors. Environmental Science & Technology, 51(12), 6648–6664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hsu, S.-C., Liu, S. C., Jeng, W.-L., Lin, F.-J., Huang, Y.-T., Lung, S.-C. C., Liu, T.-H., & Tu, J.-Y. (2005). Variations of Cd/Pb and Zn/Pb ratios in Taipei aerosols reflecting long-range transport or local pollution emissions. Science of the Total Environment, 347(1), 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ito, K., Mathes, R., Ross, Z., Nádas, A., Thurston, G., & Matte, T. (2011). Fine particulate matter constituents associated with cardiovascular hospitalizations and mortality in New York City. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(4), 467–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jackson, M., & Solheid, P. (2010). On the quantitative analysis and evaluation of magnetic hysteresis data. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 11(4).Google Scholar
  35. Kardel, F., Wuyts, K., Maher, B., Hansard, R., & Samson, R. (2011). Leaf saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) as a proxy for particulate matter monitoring: inter-species differences and in-season variation. Atmospheric Environment, 45(29), 5164–5171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kardel, F., Wuyts, K., Maher, B., & Samson, R. (2012). Intra-urban spatial variation of magnetic particles: monitoring via leaf saturation isothermal remanent magnetisation (SIRM). Atmospheric Environment, 55, 111–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kim, E., Hopke, P. K., Pinto, J. P., & Wilson, W. E. (2005). Spatial variability of fine particle mass, components, and source contributions during the regional air pollution study in St. Louis. Environmental Science & Technology, 39(11), 4172–4179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Könczöl, M., Ebeling, S., Goldenberg, E., Treude, F., Gminski, R., Gieré, R., Grobéty, B., Rothen-Rutishauser, B., Merfort, I., & Mersch-Sundermann, V. (2011). Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of size-fractionated iron oxide (magnetite) in A549 human lung epithelial cells: role of ROS, JNK, and NF-κB. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 24(9), 1460–1475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Krämer, U., Herder, C., Sugiri, D., Strassburger, K., Schikowski, T., Ranft, U., & Rathmann, W. (2010). Traffic-related air pollution and incident type 2 diabetes: results from the SALIA cohort study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 118(9), 1273–1279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Laden, F., Neas, L. M., Dockery, D. W., & Schwartz, J. (2000). Association of fine particulate matter from different sources with daily mortality in six US cities. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(10), 941–947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lewinski, N., Graczyk, H., & Riediker, M. (2013). Human inhalation exposure to iron oxide particles. BioNanoMaterials, 14(1-2), 5–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lowrie, W., & Fuller, M. (1971). On the alternating field demagnetization characteristics of multidomain thermoremanent magnetization in magnetite. Journal of Geophysical Research, 76(26), 6339–6349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Maatoug, M., K. Taïbi, A. Akermi, M. Achir and M. Mestrari (2012). Bio-monitoring of air quality using leaves of tree and lichens in urban environments.Google Scholar
  44. Maher, B. A., Moore, C., & Matzka, J. (2008). Spatial variation in vehicle-derived metal pollution identified by magnetic and elemental analysis of roadside tree leaves. Atmospheric Environment, 42(2), 364–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Maher, B. A., Ahmed, I. A., Karloukovski, V., MacLaren, D. A., Foulds, P. G., Allsop, D., Mann, D. M., Torres-Jardón, R., & Calderon-Garciduenas, L. (2016). Magnetite pollution nanoparticles in the human brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(39), 10797–10801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Matte, T. D., Ross, Z., Kheirbek, I., Eisl, H., Johnson, S., Gorczynski, J. E., Kass, D., Markowitz, S., Pezeshki, G., & Clougherty, J. E. (2013). Monitoring intraurban spatial patterns of multiple combustion air pollutants in New York City: design and implementation. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, 23(3), 223–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Matzka, J., & Maher, B. A. (1999). Magnetic biomonitoring of roadside tree leaves: identification of spatial and temporal variations in vehicle-derived particulates. Atmospheric Environment, 33(28), 4565–4569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McIntosh, G., Gómez-Paccard, M., & Osete, M. L. (2007). The magnetic properties of particles deposited on Platanus x hispanica leaves in Madrid, Spain, and their temporal and spatial variations. Science of the Total Environment, 382(1), 135–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mitchell, R., & Maher, B. A. (2009). Evaluation and application of biomagnetic monitoring of traffic-derived particulate pollution. Atmospheric Environment, 43(13), 2095–2103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mitchell, R., Maher, B., & Kinnersley, R. (2010). Rates of particulate pollution deposition onto leaf surfaces: temporal and inter-species magnetic analyses. Environmental Pollution, 158(5), 1472–1478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Moreno, E., Sagnotti, L., Dinarès-Turell, J., Winkler, A., & Cascella, A. (2003). Biomonitoring of traffic air pollution in Rome using magnetic properties of tree leaves. Atmospheric Environment, 37(21), 2967–2977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Moskowitz, B. M. (1991). Hitchhiker’s guide to magnetism. Environmental Magnetism Workshop (IRM).Google Scholar
  53. Munger, G. T. (2003). Acer platanoides. In: Fire effects information system, [Online]. Retrieved August 5, 2019, from
  54. Muxworthy, A. R., Matzka, J., Davila, A. F., & Petersen, N. (2003). Magnetic signature of daily sampled urban atmospheric particles. Atmospheric Environment, 37(29), 4163–4169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. National Institute of Health. (2004, 17 Nov 2004). ImageJ image processing and analysis in Java. 2012, from
  56. Nowak, D. J., & Rowntree, R. A. (1990). History and range of Norway maple. Journal of Arboriculture, 16(11), 291–296.Google Scholar
  57. O’Brien, E. and U. Partner (2011). Chronology of leaded gasoline/leaded petrol history.Google Scholar
  58. Peltier, R. E., Cromar, K. R., Ma, Y., Fan, Z. H., & Lippmann, M. (2011). Spatial and seasonal distribution of aerosol chemical components in New York City: (2) road dust and other tracers of traffic-generated air pollution. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, 21(5), 484–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Peng, R. D., Bell, M. L., Geyh, A. S., McDermott, A., Zeger, S. L., Samet, J. M., & Dominici, F. (2009). Emergency admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and the chemical composition of fine particle air pollution. Environmental Health Perspectives, 117(6), 957–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. (2012). Bureau of Planning and Research, Geographic Information Division. Pennsylvania State Roads. 2012, from
  61. Piczak, K., Leśniewicz, A., & Żyrnicki, W. (2003). Metal concentrations in deciduous tree leaves from urban areas in Poland. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 86(3), 273–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pope III, C. A., Burnett, R. T., Thun, M. J., Calle, E. E., Krewski, D., Ito, K., & Thurston, G. D. (2002). Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution. JAMA, 287(9), 1132–1141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Power, A. L., Worsley, A. T., & Booth, C. (2009). Magneto-biomonitoring of intra-urban spatial variations of particulate matter using tree leaves. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 31(2), 315–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rai, P. K. (2013). Environmental magnetic studies of particulates with special reference to biomagnetic monitoring using roadside plant leaves. Atmospheric Environment, 72, 113–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Raven, P. H. J., & George, B. (2002). Biology (6th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  66. Sagnotti, L., Taddeucci, J., Winkler, A., & Cavallo, A. (2009). Compositional, morphological, and hysteresis characterization of magnetic airborne particulate matter in Rome, Italy. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 10(8), n/a–n/a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Samara, C., & Voutsa, D. (2005). Size distribution of airborne particulate matter and associated heavy metals in the roadside environment. Chemosphere, 59(8), 1197–1206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sant’Ovaia, H., Lacerda, M. J., & Gomes, C. (2012). Particle pollution—an environmental magnetism study using biocollectors located in northern Portugal. Atmospheric Environment, 61, 340–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sawidis, T., Marnasidis, A., Zachariadis, G., & Stratis, J. (1995). A study of air pollution with heavy metals in Thessaloniki city (Greece) using trees as biological indicators. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 28(1), 118–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sawidis, T., Breuste, J., Mitrovic, M., Pavlovic, P., & Tsigaridas, K. (2011). Trees as bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in three European cities. Environmental Pollution, 159(12), 3560–3570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shmool, J. L., Michanowicz, D. R., Cambal, L., Tunno, B., Howell, J., Gillooly, S., Roper, C., Tripathy, S., Chubb, L. G., & Eisl, H. M. (2014). Saturation sampling for spatial variation in multiple air pollutants across an inversion-prone metropolitan area of complex terrain. Environmental Health, 13(1), 28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Simon, E., Braun, M., Vidic, A., Bogyo, D., Fabian, I., & Tothmeresz, B. (2011). Air pollution assessment based on elemental concentration of leaves tissue and foliage dust along an urbanization gradient in Vienna. Environmental Pollution, 159(5), 1229–1233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Spagnolo, A. M., Ottria, G., Perdelli, F., & Cristina, M. L. (2015). Chemical characterisation of the coarse and fine particulate matter in the environment of an underground railway system: cytotoxic effects and oxidative stress—a preliminary study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(4), 4031–4046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Šućur, K. M., Aničić, M. P., Tomašević, M. N., Antanasijević, D. Z., Perić-Grujić, A. A., & Ristić, M. D. (2010). Urban deciduous tree leaves as biomonitors of trace element (As, V and Cd) atmospheric pollution in Belgrade, Serbia. Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, 75(10), 1453–1461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. The European Commission Directorate-General for Environment. (July 8, 2019). Air Quality Standards. Retrieved August 18, 2019, from
  76. Thomas, S., & Morawska, L. (2002). Size-selected particles in an urban atmosphere of Brisbane, Australia. Atmospheric Environment, 36(26), 4277–4288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tomašević, M., Vukmirović, Z., Rajšić, S., Tasić, M., & Stevanović, B. (2005). Characterization of trace metal particles deposited on some deciduous tree leaves in an urban area. Chemosphere, 61(6), 753–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Tomašević, M., Vukmirović, Z., Rajsic, S., Tasic, M., & Stevanovic, B. (2008). Contribution to biomonitoring of some trace metals by deciduous tree leaves in urban areas. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 137(1-3), 393–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tonne, C., Melly, S., Mittleman, M., Coull, B., Goldberg, R., & Schwartz, J. (2006). A case–control analysis of exposure to traffic and acute myocardial infarction. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(1), 53–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Tunno, B. J., Dalton, R., Michanowicz, D. R., Shmool, J. L., Kinnee, E., Tripathy, S., Cambal, L., & Clougherty, J. E. (2016). Spatial patterning in PM 2.5 constituents under an inversion-focused sampling design across an urban area of complex terrain. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, 26(4), 385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (December 20, 2016). NAAQS table. Retrieved August 21, 2019, from
  82. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (November 30, 2018). Outdoor air quality data. Retrieved August 10, 2019, from
  83. US Environmental Protection Agency. (n.d.-a) Filter conditioning and weighing facilities and procedures for PM2.5 reference and class I equivalent methods, from
  84. US Environmental Protection Agency. (n.d.-b) National Emissions inventory 2008. from
  85. Western Pennsylvania Conservancy. (2019). Pittsburgh street tree inventory. 2012, from

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sara E. Gillooly
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Drew R. Michanowicz
    • 1
  • Mike Jackson
    • 3
  • Leah K. Cambal
    • 1
  • Jessie L. C. Shmool
    • 1
  • Brett J. Tunno
    • 1
  • Sheila Tripathy
    • 1
  • Daniel J. Bain
    • 4
  • Jane E. Clougherty
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental and Occupational HealthUniversity of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public HealthPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of Environmental HealthHarvard T.H. Chan School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  3. 3.University of Minnesota Institute for Rock MagnetismMinneapolisUSA
  4. 4.Department of Geology and Geology and Environmental ScienceUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations