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Estimation of hazardous materials in water and their toxicity levels in Mahayel Aseer, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)

  • M. M. El-ToonyEmail author
  • Gh Eid
  • H. Algarni
Article
  • 44 Downloads

Abstract

This work aims to evaluate the different water sources available in Mahayel Aseer, KSA, chemically, toxicology and microbiologically. Several water samples, such as tap water, differentially desalinated water and bottled water, were analysed. Moreover, different metal ions and anions, including sodium, potassium, calcium, lead, cadmium, manganese, bicarbonate, fluoride, chloride, sulphate, nitrate and nitrite, were evaluated and assessed for human health. Bacterial and fungal pollutions arising from various water sources were also investigated. This study was conducted on polymer bottles and the best storage conditions. In order to acquire purified water safe for human consumption, certain recommendations pertaining to the steps of water treatment can be recommended.

Keywords

Risk assessments Groundwater Inorganics Organics Microbes and pathogens Pollution Policy 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Khalid University for funding this work through Group Research Project under grant number (R.G.P.1/35/38).

Funding information

The authors received funding for this work from the King Khalid University.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemistry Dept.King Khaled Univ.AbhaSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Physics Dept.King Khaled Univ.AbhaSaudi Arabia

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