Advertisement

Spatial characteristics and risk factor identification for land use spatial conflicts in a rapid urbanization region in China

  • De ZhouEmail author
  • Zhulu Lin
  • Siew Hoon Lim
Article
  • 84 Downloads

Abstract

Land use conflict is a complex problem driven by a myriad of risk factors as a result of rapid socioeconomic development and urbanization. Analyzing the spatial characteristics of land use conflict and identifying its risk factors using statistical models will help us to better understand the causes and effects of the land use conflicts for sustainable management of the limited land resources under the pressure of rapid urbanization. In this study, regression models including multiple linear regression (MLR), spatial autoregressive (SAR), and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models were employed to identify risk factors for the land use spatial conflicts in the Urban Agglomeration around Hangzhou Bay (UAHB) of China in the past 25 years. Our results showed that the overall extent and the higher-level land use spatial conflicts were actually on the decline, and their spatial autocorrelation has been weakening in the UAHB. The key risk factors that mainly caused the land use spatial conflicts in the UHAB appeared to be different at the global and local scales. This knowledge should help urban managers and policymakers to be better informed when developing pertinent land use policies at the regional and local levels. This study also underlined the importance of considering spatial autocorrelation and scale effects when identifying the risk factors for land use spatial conflicts. The lessons learned from this particular context can be extended to other areas under rapid urbanization to assess and better manage their land resources for sustainable use.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Risk factor identification Land use conflicts Spatial autoregressive model Geographically weighted regression Scale effect Urbanization 

Notes

Funding information

This current work is financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41301619), and the Doctoral Scientific Fund Project of National Territory Resources Statistics. Zhulu Lin is Adjunct Professor in the Department of Earth Systems Science and Policy of the University of North Dakota.

Supplementary material

10661_2019_7809_MOESM1_ESM.docx (32 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 32.4 kb)

References

  1. Aguiar, A. P. D., Câmara, G., & Escada, M. I. S. (2007). Spatial statistical analysis of land–use determinants in the Brazilian Amazonia: exploring intra–regional heterogeneity. Ecological Modelling, 209, 169–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alston, L. J., Mueller, B., & Libecap, G. D. (1999). A model of rural conflict: violence and land reform policy in Brazil. Environment and Development Economics, 4(2), 135–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alston, L. J., Libecap, G. D., & Mueller, B. (2000). Land reform policies, the sources of violent conflict, and implications for deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 39(2), 162–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anselin, L. (1988). Spatial econometrics: methods and models. Studies in Operational Regional Science, 411, 310–330.Google Scholar
  5. Anselin, L. (2012). From SpaceStat to CyberGIS: twenty years of spatial data analysis software. International Regional Science Review, 35, 131–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arnold, M. L., Newman, J. H., Gaddy, B. B., & Dean, C. B. (2005). A look at the condition of rural education research: setting a direction for future research. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 20(6), 1–23.Google Scholar
  7. Aspinall, R. (2004). Modelling land use change with generalized linear models--a multi-model analysis of change between 1860 and 2000 in Gallatin Valley, Montana. Journal of Environmental Management, 72, 91–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bai, X., Shi, P., & Liu, Y. (2014). Realizing China’s urban dream. Nature, 509(7499), 158–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Batisani, N., & Yarnal, B. (2009). Urban expansion in Centre County, Pennsylvania: spatial dynamics and landscape transformations. Applied Geography, 29, 235–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beale, C. M., Lennon, J. J., Yearsley, J. M., Brewer, M. J., & Elston, D. A. (2010). Regression analysis of spatial data. Ecology Letters, 13(2), 246–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bonsu, N. O., Dhubháin, Á. N., & O’Connor, D. (2017). Evaluating the use of an integrated forest land-use planning approach in addressing forest ecosystem services conflicting demands: experience within an Irish forest landscape. Futures, 86, 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown, G., & Raymond, C. M. (2014). Methods for identifying land use conflict potential using participatory mapping. Landscape and Urban Planning, 122, 196–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Campbell, S. (1996). Green cities, growing cities, just cities? Journal of the American Planning Association, 62(3), 296–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Campbell, A. (2002). The private sector and conflict prevention mainstreaming risk analysis and conflict impact assessment tools for multinational corporations. Country Indicators for Foreign Policy, Carleton University http://www.carleton.ca/cifp/docs/mncsriskassessmentreportupdated.pdf. Accessed Dec 2018.
  15. Campbell, D. J., Gichohi, H., Mwangi, A., & Chege, L. (2000). Land use conflict in Kajiado district, Kenya. Land Use Policy, 17(4), 337–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carr, M. H., & Zwick, P. (2000). Using GIS suitability analysis to identify potential future land use conflicts in North Central Florida. Journal of Conservation Planning, 1, 58–73.Google Scholar
  17. Chen, M., Liu, W., & Tao, X. (2013). Evolution and assessment on China’s urbanization 1960-2010: Under-urbanization or over-urbanization? Habitat International, 38, 25–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chen, M. X., Liu, W. D., & Lu, D. D. (2016). Challenges and the way forward in China’s new-type urbanization. Land Use Policy, 55, 334–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cheng, J., & Masser, I. (2003). Urban growth pattern modeling: a case study of Wuhan city, PR China. Landscape and Urban Planning, 62(4), 199–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. China’s National Bureau of Statistics. (1990−2013). China cities statistical yearbook. Beijing: Chinese Statistical Press (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  21. Cui, X., Fang, C., Liu, H., & Liu, X. (2019). Assessing sustainability of urbanization by a coordinated development index for an urbanization-resources-environment complex system: a case study of Jing-Jin-Ji region, China. Ecological Indicators, 96, 383–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Deng, X., Huang, J., Rozelle, S., & Uchida, E. (2008). Growth, population and industrialization, and urban land expansion of China. Journal of Urban Economics, 63(1), 96–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Du, J. X., & Chen, D. M. (2010). The interpretation about the difference construction of environmental interests and cause of formation- based on fundamental analysis of regional and urban and rural environment interest distribution. East China Economic Management, 24(11), 45–50 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  24. von der Dunk, A., Gret-Regamey, A., Dalang, T., & Hersperger, A. M. (2011). Defining a typology of peri-urban land use conflicts - a case study from Switzerland. Landscape and Urban Planning, 101(2), 149–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Eagles, C. W. (1989). Congressional voting in the 1920s: a test of urban-rural conflict. The Journal of American History, 76(2), 528–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fan, F., Wang, Y., Qiu, M., & Wang, Z. (2009). Evaluating the temporal and spatial urban expansion patterns of Guangzhou from 1979 to 2003 by remote sensing and GIS methods. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 23(11), 1371–1388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Garcia-Ruiz, J. M., & Lasanta-Martínez, T. (1993). Land-use conflicts as a result of land-use change in the central Spanish Pyrenees: a review. Mountain Research and Development, 13(3), 295–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ge, Y., & Zhao, X. (2017). Regional economy and development: a viewpoint and application of spatial statistics. Spatial Statistics, 21, 337–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Geoda (2005). Exploring spatial data with GeoDaTM: a workbook. http://www.csiss.org/clearinghouse/GeoDa/geodaworkbook.pdf. Accessed April 9, 2015.
  30. Gómez-Vázquez, I., Álvarez-álvarez, P., & Marey-Pérez, M. F. (2009). Conflicts as enhancers or barriers to the management of privately owned common land: a method to analyze the role of conflicts on a regional basis. Forest Policy and Economics, 11(8), 617–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Groot, R. D. (2006). Function-analysis and valuation as a tool to assess land use conflicts in planning for sustainable, multi-functional landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning, 75(3–4), 175–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Han, J., Meng, X., Zhou, X., Yi, B., Liu, M., & Xiang, W. N. (2017). A long-term analysis of urbanization process, landscape change, and carbon sources and sinks: a case study in China’s Yangtze River Delta region. Journal of Cleaner Production, 141, 1040–1050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hao, H., & Ren, Z. (2009). Land use/land cover change (LUCC) and eco-environment response to LUCC in farming–pastoral zone, China. Agricultural Sciences in China, 8(1), 91–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hasse, J. E., & Lathrop, G. L. (2003). Land resource impact indicators of urban sprawl. Applied Geography, 23(2–3), 159–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ho, P. (2014). The ‘credibility thesis’ and its application to property rights: (in) secure land tenure, conflict and social welfare in China. Land Use Policy, 40, 13–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hu, S., Cheng, Q., Wang, L., & Xie, S. (2012). Multifractal characterization of urban residential land price in space and time. Applied Geography, 34, 161–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hu, W., Zhang, Y., Huang, B., & Teng, Y. (2017). Soil environmental quality in greenhouse vegetable production systems in eastern China: current status and management strategies. Chemosphere, 170, 183–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Huang, Y. E. (2010). Research on urban-rural interests conflict problem in the urbanization process. Hunan Social Sciences, 1, 79–81 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  39. Huang, C. B., Huang, X., Peng, C. H., Zhou, Z. X., Teng, M. J., & Wang, P. C. (2019). Land use/cover change in the three gorges reservoir area, China: reconciling the land use conflicts between development and protection. Catena, 175, 388–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hui, E. C. M., & Bao, H. (2013). The logic behind conflicts in land acquisitions in contemporary China: a framework based upon game theory. Land Use Policy, 30, 373–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Huo, X. N., Zhang, W. W., Sun, D. F., Li, H., Zhou, L. D., & Li, B. G. (2011). Spatial pattern analysis of heavy metals in Beijing agricultural soils based on spatial autocorrelation statistics. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8(6), 2074–2089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ide, T., & Frohlich, C. (2015). Socio-environmental cooperation and conflict? A discursive understanding and its application to the case of Israel and Palestine. Earth System Dynamics, 6, 659–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jiang, L., Deng, X., & Seto, K. C. (2013). The impact of urban expansion on agricultural land use intensity in China. Land Use Policy, 35, 33–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Karimi, A., & Brown, G. (2017). Assessing multiple approaches for modelling land-use conflict potential from participatory mapping data. Land Use Policy, 67, 253–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Karimi, A., & Hockings, M. (2018). A social-ecological approach to land-use conflict to inform regional and conservation planning and management. Landscape Ecology, 33, 691–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kim, I., & Arnhold, S. (2018). Mapping environmental land use conflict potentials and ecosystem services in agricultural watersheds. Science of the Total Environment, 630, 827–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kuang, W., Liu, J., Dong, J., Chi, W., & Zhang, C. (2016). The rapid and massive urban and industrial land expansions in China between 1990 and 2010: A CLUD–based analysis of their trajectories, patterns, and drivers. Landscape and Urban Planning, 145, 21–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Li, H., & Zhang, X. (2017). A spatial explicit assessment of food security in Africa based on simulated crop production and distribution. Journal of Cleaner Production, 147, 628–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Li, J. D., Deng, J. S., Wang, K., Li, J., Huang, T., Lin, Y., & Yu, H. Y. (2014). Spatiotemporal patterns of urbanization in a developed region of eastern coastal China. Sustainability, 6, 4042–4058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lin, W. Q., Wu, M. H., Zhang, Y., Zeng, R. J., Zheng, X. J., Shao, L., Zhao, L. Y., Li, S. X., & Tang, Y. (2018a). Regional differences of urbanization in China and its driving factors. Science China Earth Sciences, 61(6), 778–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lin, Q. W., Tan, S. K., Zhang, L., Wang, S. L., Wei, C., & Li, Y. (2018b). Conflicts of land expropriation in China during 2006–2016: an overview and its spatio-temporal characteristics. Land Use Policy, 76, 246–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Liu, J. P., & Li, Y. X. (2011). An analysis on urban-rural conflict and cause of formation in the rapid process of urbanization. Theoretical Issues, 12, 5–9 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  53. Liu, J. Y., Zhan, J. Y., & Deng, X. Z. (2005a). Spatio-temporal patterns and driving forces of urban land expansion in China during the economic reform era. Ambio: A Journal of the Human Environment, 34(6), 450–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Liu, J., Zhan, J., & Deng, X. (2005b). Spatio–temporal patterns and driving forces of urban land expansion in China during the economic reform era. Ambio: A Journal of the Human Environment, 34(6), 450–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Liu, B., Zhao, W., Liu, Z., Yang, Y., Luo, W., Zhou, H., & Zhang, Y. (2015). Changes in species diversity, aboveground biomass, and vegetation cover along an afforestation successional gradient in a semiarid desert steppe of China. Ecological Engineering, 81, 301–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lu, Q. S., Xu, B., Liang, F. Y., Gao, Z. Q., & Ning, J. C. (2013). Influences of the grain–for–green project on grain security in southern China. Ecological Indicators, 34, 616–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lu, Y., Geng, Y., Qian, Y., Han, W., McDowall, W., & Bleischwitz, R. (2016). Changes of human time and land use pattern in one mega city’s urban metabolism: a multi–scale integrated analysis of Shanghai. Journal of Cleaner Production, 133, 391–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ma, T., Zhou, C., Pei, T., Haynie, S., & Fan, J. (2012). Quantitative estimation of urbanization dynamics using time series of DMSP/OLS nighttime light data: a comparative case study from China’s cities. Remote Sensing of Environment, 124, 99–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mannarini, T., Roccato, M., & Russo, S. (2015). The false consensus effect: a trigger of radicalization in locally unwanted land uses conflicts? Journal of Environmental Psychology, 42, 76–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Medler, J., & Mushkatel, A. (1979). Urban-rural class conflict in Oregon land-use planning. The Western Political Quarterly, 32(3), 338–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mei, X., Dai, Z., Fagherazzi, S., & Chen, J. (2016). Dramatic variations in emergent wetland area in China’s largest freshwater Lake, Poyang Lake. Advances in Water Resources, 96, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Neri, A. C., Dupin, P., & Sanchez, L. E. (2016). A pressure-state-response approach to cumulative impact assessment. Journal of Cleaner Production, 126, 288–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Obala, L. M., & Mattingly, M. (2014). Ethnicity, corruption and violence in urban land conflict in Kenya. Urban Studies, 51, 2735–2751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pacione, M. (2013). Private profit, public interest and land use planning–a conflict interpretation of residential development pressure in Glasgow’s rural-urban fringe. Land Use Policy, 32, 61–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Parker, D. C., Hessl, A., & Davis, S. C. (2008). Complexity, land-use modeling, and the human dimension: fundamental challenges for mapping unknown outcome spaces. Geoforum, 39(2), 789–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pavón, D., Ventura, M., Ribas, A., Serra, P., Saurı́, D., & Breton, F. (2003). Land use change and socio-environmental conflict in the Alt Empordà county (Catalonia, Spain). Journal of Arid Environments, 54(3), 543–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Peng, J., Zhou, G., Tang, C., & He, Y. (2012). The analysis of spatial conflict measurement in fast urbanization region based on ecological security: a case study of Changsha–Zhuzhou–Xiangtan urban agglomeration. Journal of Natural Resources, 27, 1507–1519 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  68. Rangel, T. F., Diniz, J. A. F., & Bini, L. M. (2010). SAM: a comprehensive application for spatial analysis in macroecology. Ecography, 33(1), 46–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Renard, K. G., Foster, G. R., Weesies, D. K., McCool, D. K., & Yoder, D. C. (1997). Predicting soil erosion by water: a guide to conservation planning with the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE). Agricultural Handbook (p. 703). Washington: United States Department of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  70. Rudianto, & Tantu, A. G. (2014). An analysis of coastal land conflict in the north of Jakarta coastal area: (a general algebraic modelling system approach). Journal of Coastal Conservation, 18(1), 69–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Salka, W. M. (2001). Urban-rural conflict over environmental policy in the Western United States. The American Review of Public Administration, 31(1), 33–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Scherwitz, E. (2016). The EU’s approach towards Asia: regional cooperation and regional conflicts in the past and today. Asia Europe Journal, 14(4), 367–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Seto, K. C., Reenberg, A., Boone, C. G., Fragkias, M., Haase, D., Langanke, T., Marcotullio, P., Munroe, D. K., Olah, B., & Simon, D. (2012). Urban land teleconnections and sustainability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), 109(20), 7687–7692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Shen, H. J., Li, X., Luo, J. M., & Chau, K. Y. (2017). One country, two strata: Implications of social and cultural conflicts of Chinese outbound tourism to Hong Kong. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 6(3), 166–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sheng, J., Han, X., & Zhou, H. (2016). Spatially varying patterns of afforestation/reforestation and socio–economic factors in China: a geographically weighted regression approach. Journal of Cleaner Production, 153(1), 362–371.Google Scholar
  76. Song, X. D., Brus, D. J., Liu, F., Li, D. C., Zhao, Y. G., Yang, J. L., & Zhang, G. L. (2016). Mapping soil organic carbon content by geographically weighted regression: a case study in the Heihe River basin, China. Geoderma, 261, 11–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Statistics Bureau of Zhejiang Province. (1990−2013). Zhejiang province statistical yearbook. Beijing: Chinese Statistic Press (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  78. Steinhäußer, R., Siebert, R., Steinführer, A., & Hellmich, M. (2015). National and regional land–use conflicts in Germany from the perspective of stakeholders. Land Use Policy, 49, 183–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. The Zhejiang Provincial Government (2003a). The industrial zone development plan of the UAHB (2004–2020). Available from http://www.110.com/fagui/law_99535.html Accessed 13.12.24. (in Chinese).
  80. The Zhejiang Provincial Government (2003b). The urban agglomeration spatial development strategy plan of the UAHB (2004–2020). Available from http://www.soudi.cn/soudi/news_2293.html Accessed 04.07.26. (in Chinese).
  81. Tian, G. J., Qiao, Z., & Zhang, Y. Q. (2012). The investigation of relationship between rural settlement density, size, spatial distribution and its geophysical parameters of China using Landsat TM images. Ecological Modelling, 231, 25–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Torre, A., Melot, R., Magsi, H., Bossuet, L., Cadoret, A., Caron, A., Darly, S., Jeanneaux, P., Kirat, T., Pham, H. V., & Kolokouris, O. (2014). Identifying and measuring land-use and proximity conflicts: methods and identification. Springer Plus, 3(1), 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tu, J., & Xia, Z. G. (2008). Examining spatially varying relationships between land use and water quality using geographically weighted regression I: model design and evaluation. Science of the Total Environment, 407(1), 358–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Valle Junior, R. F., Varandas, S. G. P., Sanches Fernandes, L. F., & Pacheco, F. A. L. (2014). Environmental land use conflicts: a threat to soil conservation. Land Use Policy, 41, 172–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wang, D. S. (2012). Imbalances and counterbalance: urban and rural environment fair measure and countermeasures. Commercial Age, 10, 110–111 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  86. Wang, M., & Li, C. (2019). An institutional analysis of China’s south-to-north water diversion. Thesis Eleven, 150(1), 68–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wang, Q., Ren, Q., & Liu, J. (2016a). Identification and apportionment of the drivers of land use change on a regional scale: unbiased recursive partitioning–based stochastic model application. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment, 217, 99–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wang, Z. J., Jiao, J. Y., Rayburg, S., Wang, Q. L., & Su, Y. (2016b). Soil erosion resistance of “grain for green” vegetation types under extreme rainfall conditions on the Loess Plateau, China. Catena, 141, 109–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Weng, Z. C. (2004). The reconstruction of urban civilization order: discussion on urban and rural cultural conflict and integration. Market Modernization, 10, 85–86 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  90. Wu, Y., & Heerink, N. (2016). Foreign direct investment, fiscal decentralization and land conflicts in China. China Economic Review, 38, 92–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Xiao, J., Shen, Y., Ge, J. F., Tateishi, R., Tang, C. Y., Liang, Y. Q., & Tang, C. (2006). Evaluating urban expansion and land use change in Shijiazhuang, China, by using GIS and remote sensing. Landscape and Urban Planning, 75(1), 69–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Xiao, R., Su, S., Wang, J., Zhang, Z., Jiang, D., & Wu, J. (2013). Local spatial modeling of paddy soil landscape patterns in response to urbanization across the urban agglomeration around Hangzhou Bay, China. Applied Geography, 39, 158–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Xie, H. (2011). Spatial characteristic analysis of land use eco-risk based on landscape structure: a case study in the Xingguo County, Jiangxi province. China Environmental Science, 31, 688–695 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  94. Xie, H., He, Y., & Xie, X. (2017). Exploring the factors influencing ecological land change for China’s Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region using big data. Journal of Cleaner Production, 142(2), 677–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Xu, H., Tang, X., Liu, J., Ding, H., Wu, J., Zhang, M., Yang, Q., Cai, L., Zhao, H., & Liu, Y. (2009). China’s progress toward the significant reduction of the rate of biodiversity loss. Bioscience, 59(10), 843–852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Yan, H., Liu, J., Huang, H., Dong, J., Xu, X., & Wang, J. (2012). Impacts of cropland transformation on agricultural production under urbanization and grain for green project in China. Acta Geographica Sinica, 67, 579–588 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  97. Yao, X. Y. (2011). Accelerating rural urbanization: risk is higher than the opportunities. Exploration and Free Views, 2, 24–26 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  98. You, W., Zang, Z., Zhang, L., Li, Y., & Wang, W. (2016). Estimating national–scale ground–level PM25 concentration in China using geographically weighted regression based on MODIS and MISR AOD. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23(9), 8327–8338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Yu, A. T. W., Wu, Y., Zheng, B., Zhang, X., & Shen, L. (2014). Identifying risk factors of urban-rural conflict in urbanization: a case of China. Habitat International, 44, 177–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Yu, A. T. W., Wu, Y. Z., Shen, J. H., Zhang, X. L., Shen, L. Y., & Shan, L. P. (2015). The key causes of urban–rural conflict in China. Habitat International, 49, 65–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Yusran, Y., Sahide, M. A. K., Supratman, S., Sabar, A., Krott, M., & Giessen, L. (2017). The empirical visibility of land use conflicts: from latent to manifest conflict through law enforcement in a national park in Indonesia. Land Use Policy, 62, 302–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Zeng, C., Yang, L., Zhu, A. X., Rossiter, D. G., Liu, J., Liu, J. Z., Qin, C. Z., & Wang, D. S. (2016). Mapping soil organic matter concentration at different scales using a mixed geographically weighted regression method. Geoderma, 281, 69–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Zhan, L. (2011). Some thinking about the allocation of resources in urban and rural areas. Contemporary Economics, 17, 8–9 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  104. Zhang, T. T., Zeng, S. L., Gao, Y., Ouyang, Z. T., Li, B., Fang, C. M., & Zhao, B. (2011). Assessing impact of land uses on land salinization in the Yellow River Delta, China using an integrated and spatial statistical model. Land Use Policy, 28(4), 857–866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Zhang, Z., Su, S., Xiao, R., Jiang, D., & Wu, J. (2013). Identifying determinants of urban growth from a multi–scale perspective: a case study of the urban agglomeration around Hangzhou Bay, China. Applied Geography, 45, 193–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Zhang, Y., Liu, Y., Zhang, Y., Kong, X., Jing, Y., Cai, E., Zhang, L., Liu, Y., Wang, Z., & Liu, Y. (2019). Spatial patterns and driving forces of conflicts among the three land management red lines in China: a case study of the Wuhan urban development area. Sustainability, 11(7), 3–17.Google Scholar
  107. Zhou, D., Xu, J., & Wang, L. (2015a). Land use spatial conflicts and complexity: a case study of the urban agglomeration around Hangzhou Bay, China. Geographical Research, 34, 1630–1642 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  108. Zhou, D., Xu, J., Wang, L., & Lin, Z. (2015b). Assessing urbanization quality using structure and function analyses: a case study of the urban agglomeration around Hangzhou Bay (UAHB), China. Habitat International, 49, 165–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Zhou, D., Xu, J. C., & Lin, Z. (2017a). Conflict or coordination? Assessing land use multi-functionalization using production-living-ecology analysis. Science of the Total Environment, 577, 136–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Zhou, X., Lu, X., Lian, H., Chen, Y., & Wu, Y. (2017b). Construction of a spatial planning system at city-level: case study of “integration of multi-planning” in Yulin City, China. Habitat International, 65, 32–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Zhu, Y. W., & Huang, L. (2009). Analysis on contemporary state of China’s urban-rural political relations. The Yinchuan Municipal Party Committee Party School Journal, 11(3), 71–73 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  112. Zhu, J., Xu, Q., Pan, Y., Qiu, L., Peng, Y., & Bao, H. (2018). Land-acquisition and resettlement (LAR) conflicts: a perspective of spatial injustice of urban public resources allocation. Sustainability, 10(3), 1–15.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Land Resources Management, China Institute of Land and Urban GovernanceZhejiang Gongshang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural and Biosystems EngineeringNorth Dakota State UniversityFargoUSA
  3. 3.Department of Agribusiness and Applied EconomicsNorth Dakota State UniversityFargoUSA

Personalised recommendations