Residual behavior and risk assessment of prochloraz in bayberries and bayberry wine for the Chinese population

  • Hui-yu ZhaoEmail author
  • Gui-ling YangEmail author
  • Yin-lan Liu
  • Hai-ping Ye
  • Xing-jiang Qi
  • Qiang Wang


The bayberry is an important economic fruit as well as a minor crop in China, and few pesticide products are registered for bayberry. Prochloraz is a widely used fungicide with a high detection rate on bayberry. This study evaluated the potential dietary risk of prochloraz for different populations in China based on field trial data and market surveillance. The results indicate that one-time applications at dosages of 1000 and 1500 mg/kg with a recommended preharvest interval of 20 days do not pose a chronic or acute dietary risk. However, applying the above dosages twice will cause a potential short-term dietary risk. Risk assessment results conducted on surveillance samples indicated acceptable long-term risks for the general population, with a hazard quotient < 0.82. Furthermore, simulated washing and wine production processes were performed to mimic household practices to investigate residue transfer and distribution. We found that rinsing with tap water for 1 min was an effective way to remove residue, and the processing factors of prochloraz for both bayberry and wine were < 1, indicating that wine production could reduce residue levels. Prochloraz had a strong capacity to transfer to wine due to its high log Kow value, with transfer percentages up to 43%. This study supports the recommendation on good agricultural practices for prochloraz application and provides a guide for safe consumption.


Prochloraz Residue Risk assessment Bayberry Wine 



The authors thank the Food Mate Network Company for technical assistance with the bayberry consumption survey.

Author contributions

All authors contributed significantly to this work. All authors reviewed the manuscript. In addition, all authors approved the final draft.

Funding information

The authors are grateful to the Yi Pin Yi Ce Project (grant number ZJNY2019001) and the Analysis and Test Foundation of Zhejiang Province (grant number 2017C37035) for funding this research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Quality and Standards for Agricultural ProductsZhejiang Academy of Agricultural SciencesHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Risk Assessment Lab for Agricultural Products (Hangzhou)Ministry of AgricultureHangzhouChina
  3. 3.Huangyan Agriculture and Forestry BureauHuangyanChina
  4. 4.Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural SciencesHangzhouChina

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