Groundwater recharge estimation using HYDRUS 1D model in Alaşehir sub-basin of Gediz Basin in Turkey

  • Serhat Tonkul
  • Alper BabaEmail author
  • Celalettin Şimşek
  • Seda Durukan
  • Ali Can Demirkesen
  • Gökmen Tayfur


Gediz Basin, located in the western part of Turkey constituting 2% land of the country, has an important groundwater potential in the area. Alasehir sub-basin, located in the southeast of the Gediz Basin and subject to the extensive withdrawal for the irrigation, constitutes the study area. Natural recharge to the sub-basin due to precipitation is numerically investigated in this study. For this purpose, 25 research wells, whose depths range from 20 to 50 m, were drilled to observe the recharge and collect the necessary field data for the numerical model. Meteorological data were collected from 3 weather stations installed in the study area. The numerical model HYDRUS was calibrated using the field water content data. Soil characterization was done on the core samples; the aquifer characterization was performed, and the alluvial aquifer recharge due to precipitation was calculated. As a result, the computed recharge value ranges from 21.78 to 68.52 mm, with an average value of 43.09 mm. According to the numerical model, this amount of recharge corresponds to 10% of the amount of annual rainfall.


Aquifer recharge Alaşehir sub-basin Gediz Basin Precipitation Model calibration and validation Numerical modeling 


Funding information

This work was financially supported by Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) with the project number of 115Y065.


  1. Anlauf, R., Rehrmann, P., & Schacht, H. (2012). Simulation of water uptake and redistribution in growing media during ebb-and-flow irrigation. Journal of Horticulture and Forestry, 4(1), 8–21.Google Scholar
  2. Batalha, M. S., Barbosa, M. C., Faybishenko, B., & Van Genuchten, M. T. (2018). Effect of temporal averaging of meteorological data on predictions of groundwater recharge. Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, 66(2), 143–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blonquist, J., Jr., Jones, S. B., & Robinson, D. (2006). Precise irrigation scheduling for turfgrass using a subsurface electromagnetic soil moisture sensor. Agricultural Water Management, 84(1-2), 153–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brooks, R. H., & Corey, A.T. (1964). Hydraulic properties of porous media, Hydrol. Paper No. 3, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO.Google Scholar
  5. Caiqiong, Y., & Jun, F. (2016). Application of HYDRUS-1D model to provide antecedent soil water contents for analysis of runoff and soil erosion from a slope on the Loess Plateau. Catena, 139(1-8), 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Çiftçi, N. B., & Bozkurt, E. (2009). Evolution of the Miocene sedimentary fill of the Gediz Graben, SW Turkey. Sedimentary Geology, 216, 49–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dandekar, A., Singh, D., Sarangi, A., & Singh, A. (2018). Modelling vadose zone processes for assessing groundwater recharge in semi-arid region. Current Science, 114(3), 608–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. De Silva, C. (2015). Simulation of potential groundwater recharge from the Jaffna Peninsula of Sri Lanka using HYDRUS-1D Model. OUSL Journal, 7, 43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Devine, R. S. (1995). The trouble with dams. Atlantic Monthly, 276(2), 64–74.Google Scholar
  10. Durner, W. (1994). Hydraulic conductivity estimation for soils with heterogeneous pore structure. Water Resources Research, 32(9), 211–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. E.İ.E. (2017). Güneş Enerjisi Potansiyel Atlası (GEPA). Retrieved from Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Enerji ve Tabi Kaynaklar Bakanlığı:
  12. Hou, L., Zhou, Y., Bao, H., & Wenninger, J. (2017). Simulation of maize (Zea mays L.) water use with the HYDRUS-1D model in the semi-arid Hailiutu River catchment, Northwest China. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 62(1), 93–103.Google Scholar
  13. Kambale, J., Singh, D., & Sarangi, A. (2017). Impact of climate change on groundwater recharge in a semi-arid region of northern India. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 15(1), 335–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Knoppers, R., & van Hulst, W. (1995). De keerzijde van de dam: Novib.Google Scholar
  15. Kosugi, K. (1996). Lognormal distribution model for unsaturated soil hydraulic properties. Water Resources Research, 32(9), 2697–2703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Melki, A., Abdollahi, K., Fatahi, R., & Abida, H. (2017). Groundwater recharge estimation under semi arid climate: case of Northern Gafsa watershed, Tunisia. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 132, 37–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mualem, Y. (1976). A new model for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated porous media. Water Resources Research, 12(3), 513–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nasta, P., Adane, Z., Lock, N., Houston, A., & Gates, J. B. (2018). Links between episodic groundwater recharge rates and rainfall events classified according to stratiform-convective storm scoring: a plot-scale study in eastern Nebraska. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 259, 154–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pearce, F. (1992). The dammed: rivers, dams, and the coming world water crisis.Google Scholar
  20. Richards, L. A. (1931). Capillary conduction of liquids through porous mediums. Physics, 1(5), 318–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rushton, K., & Ward, C. (1979). The estimation of groundwater recharge. Journal of Hydrology, 41(3), 345–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Simunek, J., Köhne, J. M., Kodešová, R., & Šejna, M. (2008). Simulating non equilibrium movement of water, solutes, and particles using HYDRUS: a review of recent applications. Soil and Water Research, 3(Special Issue 1), S42–S51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Szymkiewicz, A., Gumuła-Kawęcka, A., Šimůnek, J., Leterme, B., Beegum, S., Jaworska-Szulc, B., & Jacques, D. (2018). Simulations of freshwater lens recharge and salt/freshwater interfaces using the HYDRUS and SWI2 packages for MODFLOW. Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, 66(2), 246–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Thornthwaite, C. W. (1948). An approach toward a rational classification of climate. Geographical Review, 38(1), 55–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tonkul, S. (2018). Natural groundwater recharge in the Alaşehir Sub-basin (Gediz Basin, Turkey), İzmir Institute of Technology, The Graduate School of Engineering & Science, Master ThesisGoogle Scholar
  26. Van Genuchten, M. T. (1980). A closed-form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils 1. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 44(5), 892–898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Vogel, M. (2019). Effects of model spin-up on simulated recharge using the Hydrus-1D vadose zone model.Google Scholar
  28. Vogel, T., & Cislerova, M. (1988). On the reliability of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity calculated from the moisture retention curve. Transport in Porous Media, 3, 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Yang, Z.-Y., Wang, K., Yuan, Y., Huang, J., Chen, Z.-J., & Li, C. (2019). Non-negligible lag of groundwater infiltration recharge: a case in Mu Us Sandy Land, China. Water, 11(3), 561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Serhat Tonkul
    • 1
  • Alper Baba
    • 1
    Email author
  • Celalettin Şimşek
    • 2
  • Seda Durukan
    • 3
  • Ali Can Demirkesen
    • 4
  • Gökmen Tayfur
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineeringİzmir Institute of TechnologyİzmirTurkey
  2. 2.Torbalı Vocational High SchoolDokuz Eylül UniversityİzmirTurkey
  3. 3.Manisa Vocational School of Technical SciencesManisa Celal Bayar UniversityManisaTurkey
  4. 4.Department of City and Regional Planningİzmir Institute of TechnologyİzmirTurkey

Personalised recommendations