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Surface chlorophyll anomalies associated with Indian Ocean Dipole and El Niño Southern Oscillation in North Indian Ocean: a case study of 2006–2007 event

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North Indian Ocean witnesses varied dynamical response due to independent climate modes such as Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)/El Niño Southern Oscillations (ENSO) and their co-occurrences. These modes have a significant impact on ocean productivity, which in turn shows feedback for the strengthening of these patterns. Keeping this in view, the present work attempts to analyze the biological activity during the combined influence of positive IOD with El Niño during 2006–2007 event. To divulge the biological variability along with the dynamical response, the study includes intra-annual variability surface chlorophyll anomaly with D20 anomaly using satellite observations. Here, the individual role of IOD and ENSO on both surface chlorophyll and D20 is segregated through partial regression analysis for a period of 25 years (1993–2017). By the regression method, it can be seen varied chlorophyll response for the 2006–2007 event with the IOD forcing leads to the major spatial and temporal variability with positive anomalies in Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean (EEIO) (generally oligotrophic), Northwestern Bay of Bengal (NWBoB), and Northwestern Arabian Sea (NAS2) where production begins in fall intermonsoon and peaks up during November. On the other hand, negative anomalies are observed around the southern tip of India (SBoB) and the Northern Arabian Sea (NAS1). While ENSO depicts the high surface chlorophyll variability in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO1, WIO2) with negative anomalies of surface chlorophyll. This study observed an asymmetric response of chlorophyll variability over the North Indian Ocean during the 1997–1998 and 2006–2007 events with a major influence of IOD mode compared with the El Niño. Therefore, understanding the chlorophyll anomalies during different climate modes will help us to better understand the interannual variability and improve the predictability of chlorophyll productivity regions.

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We are very much thankful to Ms. Pavan Harika Raavi, graduate research scholar, of the University of Melbourne for her consistent support to the manuscript. We are delighted to IIT Kharagpur and MHRD (Ministry of Human Resource and Development) for providing the necessary platform for the work and financial assistantship for carrying out the research works. We are also showing our gratitude towards PODAAC (Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center) for giving chlorophyll data (https://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov) from Sea WiFS monthly data. We are glad to put our thanks towards Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth data (AMSR-E) for providing SST data with the site (apdrc.soest.hawaii.edu) and also to Climate Forecast System (CFS), National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (http://cfs.ncep.noaa.gov/pub/raid1/cfsv2/reforecast.monthly.time/) for providing D20 data. We are satisfied to get averaged SST anomalies over the Niño 3.4 region as obtained from European Climate Assessment and Data (https://climexp.knmi.nl/getindices.cgi?WMO=NCEPData/nino4_daily&STATION=NINO4&TYPE=i&id=someone@somewhere&NPERYEAR=366).

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Pandey, S., Bhagawati, C., Dandapat, S. et al. Surface chlorophyll anomalies associated with Indian Ocean Dipole and El Niño Southern Oscillation in North Indian Ocean: a case study of 2006–2007 event. Environ Monit Assess 191, 807 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7754-z

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  • Surface chlorophyll
  • Indian Ocean Dipole
  • El Niño Southern Oscillation
  • Partial regression
  • Interannual variability