The impact of spatiotemporal patterns of land use land cover and land surface temperature on an urban cool island: a case study of Bengaluru
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In most of the developing countries, man-made developments in the environment have led to the growing demand to contextualize the land use land cover (LULC) changes and land surface temperature (LST) variations. Due to the modification in the surface properties of the cities, a difference in energy balance between the cities and its nonurban surroundings is observed. The aim of this study is to analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of LULC and LST and its interrelationship in Bengaluru urban district, India, during the period from 1989 to 2017 using remote sensing data. Intensity analysis was performed for the interval to analyze the LULC change and identify the driving forces. The impact of LULC change on LST was assessed using hot spot analysis (Getis–Ord Gi* statistics). The results of this study show that (a) dominant LULC change experienced is the increase in urban area (approximately 40%) and the rate of land use change was faster in the time period 1989–2001 than 2001–2017; (b) the major transition witnessed is from barren and agricultural land to urban; (c) over the period of 28 years, LST patterns for different land use classes exhibit an increasing trend with an overall increase of approximately 6 °C and the mean LST of urban area increased by about 8 °C; (d) LST pattern change can be effectively analyzed using hot spot analysis; and (e) as the urban expansion occurs, the cold spots have increased, and it is mainly clustered in the urban area. It confirms the presence of an urban cool island effect in Bengaluru urban district. The findings of this work can be used as a scientific basis for the sustainable development and land use planning of the region in the future.
KeywordsLand use land cover Land surface temperature Intensity analysis Urban cool island Bengaluru
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