Background element content in the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea: a comparative analysis of digestion methods
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In bioaccumulation studies, the interpretation of pollutant contents in the target biomonitor has to be performed by assessing a deviation from an unaltered reference condition. A common strategy consists in the comparison with background element content (BEC) values, often built up by uncritically merging methodologically heterogeneous data. In this respect, the acid digestion of samples was identified as a major step affecting BEC data. Here, the analytical outcomes of two acid mixtures were compared on a set of matched paired samples of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea, a widely used biomonitor for which BEC values based on partial digestion were previously provided. The standard reference material BCR 482 (P. furfuracea) was used to validate analytical procedures consisting of either a HF total mineralization or an aqua regia partial one, both associated to ICP-MS multi-element analysis. In particular, the performance of the procedures was evaluated by comparing analytical results of field samples with the accuracy obtained on BCR aliquots (measured-to-expected percentage ratio). The total digestion showed a better performance for Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Sn, and Zn, whereas the opposite was found for Cr, Co, P, and S. Moreover, new BEC values were provided for P. furfuracea using a consolidated statistical approach, after a total sample digestion with hydrofluoric acid. The multivariate investigation of the background variability of 43 elements in 57 remote Italian sites led to the identification of geographically homogeneous areas for which BEC values are provided for use as reference in biomonitoring applications.
KeywordsAir pollution Baseline Bioaccumulation Biomonitor Mineralization Acid extraction
The authors are grateful to Drs. M. Bidussi, D. Cataldo, A. Carasci, T. Craighero, F. Cristofolini, S. Martellos, F. Panepinto, G. Potenza, and A. V. Romano for help in lichen sampling.
This work was supported by the University of Trieste (grant number: FRA2015, resp. M. T.).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
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