Age-dependent ingestion and inhalation doses due to intake of uranium and radon in water samples of Shiwalik Himalayas of Jammu and Kashmir, India
- 20 Downloads
The research work involved the ingestion and inhalation doses due to the intake of radon and uranium through water samples used by the inhabitants, measured in the villages of the Shiwalik Himalayas of Jammu and Kashmir, India. The uranium concentration in collected water samples was assessed by LED fluorimetric technique. All values of doses were found to be below the proposed limit of 100 μSv year−1 for all age categories except for infants due to the high-dose conversion factor. The annual effective doses for the various body organs due to the intake of radon was also calculated and found the maximum dose for lungs than other organs. The concentration of radon in water samples was assessed by Smart Rn Duo portable monitor and compared with RAD7. Statistical analysis was carried out and the Shapiro and Wilk (Biometrika, 52(3/4), 591–611, 1965) test has been also used for the distribution of the data. The physicochemical parameters were also measured in the collected water samples.
KeywordsChemical toxicity Ingestion doses Radon Uranium Water sources
The authors are profoundly grateful to the residents of Reasi district for their cooperation and help in the collection of water samples during field work. Special thanks are given to D.A.V. College, Amritsar and National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, for their support in carrying out the experimental work.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
- Ahmad, N., Jaafar, M. S., & Alsaffar, M. S. (2015). Study of radon concentration and toxic elements in drinking and irrigated water and its implications in Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Science, 8, 294–299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrras.2015.04.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Atomic Energy Regulatory Board. (2004). Drinking water specifications in India. Mumbai: Department of Atomic Energy.Google Scholar
- Bajwa, B. S., Kumar, S., Singh, S., Sahoo, S. K., & Tripathi, R. M. (2017). Uranium and other heavy toxic elements distribution in the drinking water samples of SW-Punjab, India. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Science, 10(1), 13–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrras.2015.01.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ben, B. S., Sunil, A., Reeba, M. J., Christa, E. P., Vaidyan, V. K., Prasad, R., & Jojo, P. J. (2012). Uranium in drinking water from the south coast districts of Kerala, India. Iranian Journal of Radiation Research, 10(1), 31–36.Google Scholar
- DRIs. (2005). Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium chloride, and sulphate. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10925. Accessed 28 Dec 2013.
- European Commission. (2001). Commission recommendations of 20th December 2001 on the protection of the public against exposure to radon in drinking water. 2001, 2001/982/ Euratom, L344/85.Google Scholar
- International Atomic Energy Agency. (2011). Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International basic safety standards. Safety standards series no. GSR part 3 (interim), Vienna.Google Scholar
- International Commission on Radiological Protection. (1993). Protection against Radon-222 at home and work, ICRP publications 65, Ann. ICRP 23(2). Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
- International Commission on Radiological Protection. (2002). Guide for the practical application of the ICRP human respiratory tract model. ICRP supporting guidance 3. Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
- International Commission on Radiological Protection. (2012). A compendium of dose coefficients based on ICRP publications 60. ICRP publication 119. Annals of the ICRP, 41(suppl).Google Scholar
- Kaur, M., Tripathi, P., Choudary, I., Mehra, R., & Kumar, A. (2017). Assessment of annual effective dose due to inhalation and ingestion of radon in water samples from some regions of Punjab, India. International Journal of Pure and Applied Physics, 13(2), 193–200.Google Scholar
- Kumar, A., Kaur, M., Mehra, R., Sharma, S., Mishra, R., Singh, K. P., & Bajwa, B. S. (2016a). Quantification and assessment of health risk due to ingestion of uranium in groundwater of Jammu district, Jammu & Kashmir, India. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 310(2), 793–804. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-016-4933-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kumar, A., Kaur, M., Sharma, S., Mehra, R., Sharma, D. K., & Mishra, R. (2016b). Radiation dose due to radon and heavy metal analysis in drinking water samples of Jammu district, Jammu & Kashmir, India. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 171(2), 217–222. https://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncw062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kumar, A., Kaur, M., Mehra, R., Sharma, D. K., & Mishra, R. (2017a). Comparative study of radon concentration with two techniques and elemental analysis in drinking water samples of the Jammu district, Jammu & Kashmir, India. Health Physics, 113(4), 271–281. https://doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kumar, M., Kaushal, A., Sahoo, B. K., Sarin, A., Mehra, R., Jakhu, R., Bhalla, A., & Sharma, N. (2017b). Measurement of uranium and radon concentration in drinking water samples and assessment of ingestion dose to local population in Jalandhar district of Punjab, India. Indoor and Built Environment, 1420326X1770377. https://doi.org/10.1177/1420326X17703773.
- Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy. (1996). Monitoring data for uranium—1990–1995; OMEE. Ontario drinking water surveillance program.Google Scholar
- Rodolfo, A., & Facilia, A. B. (2006). Methodology for calculation of doses to man and implementation in Pandora. Ulla Bergström, Swepro Project Management AB. ISSN 1402-3091. SKB Rapport R-06-68. July 2006.Google Scholar
- Tukey, J. W. (1977). Exploratory data analysis (pp. 530–537). Boston: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
- United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. (2000a). Dose assessment methodologies (p. 63). Sources and effects of ionizing radiation.Google Scholar
- United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. (2000b). Sources, effects and risks of ionizing radiation, report to the general assembly with scientific annexes, United Nations, New York. 1, 126–127.Google Scholar
- United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. (2000c). United nations general assembly. Vol. 1, Annex B, pp. 84–140.Google Scholar
- United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. (2008). Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annexes. United Nations.Google Scholar
- United States Environmental Protection Agency. (1999). Cancer risk coefficients for environmental exposure to radionuclides, Federal Guidance Report no. 13. EPA 402-R-99-001. Washington, DC, 1999.Google Scholar
- United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2000). National primary drinking water regulation, radionuclides. Final Rule, 40 CFR Parts 9, 141 and 142.76708-76712.Google Scholar
- United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2001). Risk assessment guidance for superfund: volume III–part a, process for conducting probabilistic risk assessment; EPA 540-R-02-002. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
- United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2003a). EPA assessment of risks from radon in homes. Air and Radiation Report EPA 402-R- 03–003.Google Scholar
- United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2003b). Current drinking water standards, ground water and drinking water protection agency (pp. 1–12).Google Scholar
- United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Secondary drinking water regulations-guidance for nuisance chemicals.Google Scholar
- Water Act. (1956). The Water Act (Act 54 of 1956) and its requirements in terms of water supplies for drinking water and for waste water treatment and discharge into the environment.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization. (2004). Guidelines for drinking water quality (Vol. 1, 3rd ed.). Geneva.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization. (2011). Guidelines for drinking water quality, in radiological aspects (4th ed.p. 2011). Geneva.Google Scholar