Evaluating the health risk of metals (Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb) in staple foods from Lagos and Ogun States, Southwestern Nigeria
- 107 Downloads
The study evaluated the health risk of metals in commonly consumed staple foods from Lagos and Ogun states, southwestern Nigeria. One hundred and thirty-three food samples were collected and analyzed for Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb using atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. Data collected were analyzed for simple descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS for Windows. The health risk of metals in staple foods was assessed for average daily dose (ADD), hazard quotient (HQ), hazard index (HI), and cancer risk (CR). Results showed the highest concentrations of Zn (18.99 ± 13.62 mg kg−1) and Ni (0.21 ± 0.10 mg kg−1) in beans, while the highest amount of Cr (2.04 ± 1.44 mg kg−1) was obtained in rice. Cd concentrations in staple foodstuffs ranged from < 0.01 to 0.30 mg kg−1, while Pb was below the detection limit. The average levels of Zn in beans and maize were higher than the recommended dietary allowance (9.5 mg kg−1) of the Institute of Medicine. The mean concentrations of Cr and Cd (except for rice) in staple food samples were also higher than the permissible standards. The health risk data revealed HQ value greater than 1.0 for Cr in the food samples, indicating non-carcinogenic adverse health effects. The HI value greater than 1.0 in staple foods established cumulative adverse effects of metals. The carcinogenic evaluation of Cr (in all the food samples) and Ni (in beans) showed CR values greater than the acceptable limit of 1.0 × 10−4, thereby demonstrating possible development of cancer through consumption of the staple foodstuffs.
KeywordsStaple foods Health Risk assessment Metal concentrations
The authors acknowledge the laboratory assistance from the Central Laboratory, University of Ibadan, during the sample analyses.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Addo, M. A., Darko, E. O., Gordon, C., & Nyarko, B. J. B. (2013). Heavy metal contaminations in soil and cassava harvested near a cement processing facility in the Volta Region, Ghana: implications of health risk for the population living in the vicinity. e-Journal of Science and Technology, 8(3), 71–83.Google Scholar
- AOAC (Ed.). (2000). Official methods of analysis (20th ed.). USA: AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD.Google Scholar
- ATSDR. (2005). Cadmium toxicity: where is cadmium found? https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/phs/phs.asp?id =300&tid=54. Accessed: 25/01/2019.
- ATSDR. (2008). Public Health Statement for zinc. https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/csem.csem=6&po=5. Accessed: 08/04/2018.
- Dibofori-Orji, A. N., & Edori, O. S. (2015). Analysis of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Fe, Zn) in processed cassava flour (garri) sold along the road side of a busy highway. Archive of Applied Science and Research, 7(2), 15–19.Google Scholar
- FAO. (2008). The state of world fisheries and aquaculture (2008). Rome: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN.Google Scholar
- FAO/WHO. (2015). General standard for contaminants and toxins in food and feed (CODEX STAN 193-1995). Working document for information and use in discussions related to contaminants and toxins in the GSCTFF. Codex Alimentarius Commission international food standards. www.fao.org/input/download/standards/17/CXS _193e_2015.pdf. Accessed: 03/03/2018.
- Finelib.com. (2017). Beans producing states in Nigeria and its various types. https://www.finelib.com/about/nigeria-cash-crops/beans-producing-states-in-nigeria-and-its-various-types/112. Accessed: 01/03/2018.
- Hanaa, M., Eweida, A., & Farag, A. (2000). Heavy metals in drinking water and their environmental impact on human health. In International Conference on Environmental Hazards Mitigation, Cairo University, Egypt (pp. 542–556).Google Scholar
- IOM (Institute of Medicine). (2001). Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc (pp. 442–501). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
- Iyaka, Y. A. (2011). Nickel in soils: a review of its distribution and impacts. Scientific Research Essay, 6(33), 6774–6777.Google Scholar
- Jones, R. E. (1990). Hexavalent chrome: threshold concept for carcinogenicity. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 3(1), 20–34.Google Scholar
- Lenntech. (2018). Heavy metals. https://www.lenntech.com/processes/heavy/heavy-metals/heavy-metals.htm. Accessed: 06/03/2018.
- National Population Commission. (2010). 2006 Population and Housing Census. Federal Republic of Nigeria. Priority Table Volume III. 64p. https://catalog.ihsn.org/index.php/catalog/3340/download/48521. Accessed: 06/02/2019.
- Nriagu, J. (2007). Zinc toxicity in humans. School of Public Health , University of Michigan. 1-7p.http://extranet.elsevier.com/homepage_about/mrwd/nvrn/Zinc%20Toxicity%20in%20Humans.pdf.Accessed: 06/02/2019.
- Okereke, C. J., Essien, E. B., & Wegwu, M. O. (2016). Human health risk assessment of heavy metal contamination for population via consumption of selected vegetables and tubers grown in farmlands in Rivers State, South-South Nigeria. Journal of Analytical Pharmaceutical Research, 3(6), 00077. https://doi.org/10.15406/japlr.2016.03.00077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Olatunji, O., & Ayuba S. A. (2012). Effect of combined applications of poultry manure and NPK 20–10-10 fertilizer on soil chemical properties and yield of maize (Zea mays L.). Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Soil Science Society of Nigeria (SSSN). 7th – 11th March, 2011, Federal University of Technology Minna.Google Scholar
- Orisakwe, O. E., Nduka, J. K., Amadi, C. N., Dike, D. O., & Bede, O. (2012). Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of food crops and fruits in Owerri, South Eastern, Nigeria. Chemical Central Journal, 6(1), 77. https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-153X-6-77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Saikia, R., Bezbaruah, R., & Bora, T. C. (2008). Microbial biotechnology. Pitam Pura: New India Publishing Agency 424p.Google Scholar
- Taiwo, A. M., Awomeso, J. A., Taiwo, O. T., Oremodu, B. D., Akintunde, O. O., Ojo, N. O., Elegbede, O. O., Olanrewaju, H. H., & Arowolo, T. A. (2017). Assessment of health risks associated with road dusts in major traffic hotspots in Abeokuta metropolis, Ogun state, southwestern Nigeria. Stochastic Environment Research Risk Assessment, 31(2), 431–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Taiwo, A. M., Oyebode, A. O., Salami, F. O., Okewole, I., Gbogboade, A. S., Agim, C., Oladele, T. O., Kamoru, T. A., Abdullahi, K. L., & Davidson, N. (2018). Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic evaluations of heavy metals in protein foods from southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Food Analysis Composition, 73, 60–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). (2002). Integrated risk information system (IRIS) database. Washington DC: National Center for Environmental Assessment.Google Scholar
- USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). (2007). Framework for metal risk assessment (EPA 120-R-07-001 Washington DC). USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). (2012). Edition of the drinking water standards and health advisories (EPA 822-S12–001).Google Scholar
- Usman, M., Madu, V. U., & Alkali, G. (2015). The combined use of organic and inorganic fertilizers for improving maize crop productivity in Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Research Publications, 5, 1–7.Google Scholar
- Uwaegute, A. C., Osho, S. M., & Obatolu, V. A. (1995). Acceptability and chemical evaluation of fortified Yam (Dicscorea spp) products. Postharvest Technology and Commodity Marketing. Edited by RSB Ferris. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. Proceedings of a postharvest conference 2 Nov. to 1 Dec. 1995. Accra, Ghana: 172.Google Scholar
- WHO. (2014). Cancer country profiles 2014 http://www.who.int/cancer/country-profiles/nga_en.pdf. Accessed: 10/07/18).
- WHO. (2015). Country statistics, Nigeria. www.who.int/country/nga/en. (Accessed:10/07/17).