Enhanced emissions of brominated flame retardants from indoor sources by direct contact with dust

  • Zhuxiu Qian
  • Yiwen Xu
  • Chaofan Zheng
  • Anping Zhang
  • Jianqiang SunEmail author


The emissions of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) from consumer products have been considered the major to the ubiquitous occurrence of contaminants in indoor environments. Direct contact with dust covering the surface of source materials in a real environment could introduce significant uncertainty. This study investigated the effects of dust coverage on the emissions of four BFRs, including 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, and 10-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), bis(2-ethyl-1-hexyl) tetrabromophthalate (BEHTBP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and hexabromobenzene (HBBZ), from decorative laminate, cotton sound insulation, PVC floor, and carpet. Direct contact with dust was confirmed to increase the total emissions by 30.8–98.1% compared with the emissions in the non-dust group. The emissions of HBCD, TBBPA, and HBBZ from cotton sound insulation were obviously enhanced by dust with smaller particles but did not linearly increase along with the dust amounts. Thus, these findings have practical implications in that the frequent removal of dust could be important to minimize the exposure risk from indoor emissions of BFRs.


Dust coverage Direct contact Emission Particle sizes Indoor materials 


Funding information

This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21577127, 21307111), the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (LY17B070006, LY13B070009), and the College Student Science and Technology Innovation Program of Zhejiang Province (Xinmiao Talents Program).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances, College of EnvironmentZhejiang University of TechnologyHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology for Industrial Pollution Control of Zhejiang ProvinceZhejiang University of TechnologyHangzhouChina

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