Adsorption of an emerging contaminant (primidone) onto activated carbon: kinetic, equilibrium, thermodynamic, and optimization studies

  • Roshan Appa
  • Vasant A. Mhaisalkar
  • Pravin K. NaoghareEmail author
  • Dilip H. Lataye


The current study addresses the removal of an emerging environmental contaminant (primidone) in batch adsorption experiments using commercial-grade powdered activated charcoal (PAC). The experiments for the removal of primidone were performed to identify the effect of various adsorption parameters. The second-order rate expression best represented the adsorption kinetics data. The Freundlich isotherm equation was best fitted to the experimental adsorption data at equilibrium for removal of primidone using PAC. The values for change in entropy (ΔSo) were positive, which indicates that the degree of freedom of the process increases. The negative values of change in enthalpy (ΔHo) and change in Gibb’s free energy (ΔGo) indicate that the physical adsorption is a dominant phenomenon, and the process is feasible and spontaneous. The negative value of ΔHo also represented the exothermicity of the adsorption process. The Taguchi optimization technique calculated the influence of variation of different process parameters, viz., initial pH (pH0), PAC dosage (m), initial adsorbate concentration (C0), solution temperature (T), and process contact time (t), on the removal of primidone by adsorption from aqueous solution. Each of the above parameters was examined at three levels to study their effects on the adsorptive uptake of primidone using PAC (qe, mg g−1), and the optimum value necessary to maximize qe was determined. The findings from the ANOVA indicate that the PAC dose (m) is the most notable parameter contributing 62.16% to qe and a 71.96% to the signal to noise (S/N) ratio data, respectively. The confirmation experiments performed at the optimum parameter condition validated the applicability of the Taguchi design of experiments. The percent removal and adsorptive uptake at the optimal condition were 86.11% and 0.258 mg g−1, respectively.


Primidone Powdered activated charcoal Isotherms ANOVA Taguchi Signal to noise ratio 


Funding information

The authors are grateful to CSIR-NEERI, Nagpur, and VNIT, Nagpur, for facilitating financial aids and facilities (KRC no.: CSIR-NEERI/KRC/2018/AUG/EISD/3).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10661_2019_7302_MOESM1_ESM.docx (18 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 17 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roshan Appa
    • 1
  • Vasant A. Mhaisalkar
    • 1
  • Pravin K. Naoghare
    • 2
    Email author
  • Dilip H. Lataye
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringVisvesvaraya National Institute of TechnologyNagpurIndia
  2. 2.Environmental Impact and Sustainability DivisionNational Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-NEERI)NagpurIndia

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