Advertisement

Exposure to lead and its effect on sleep quality and digestive problems in soldering workers

  • Mahmoud Mohammadyan
  • Mahmood Moosazadeh
  • Abasalt Borji
  • Narges Khanjani
  • Somayeh Rahimi MoghadamEmail author
Article

Abstract

Some studies show that exposure to lead affects sleep quality and causes digestive disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of sleep and digestive disorders in solderers exposed to lead. In a cross-sectional study, the occupational exposure of 40 soldering workers to lead fume and their blood lead levels were measured in the electronics industry of Neyshabur city, according to standard methods. The sleep quality of workers was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire and their digestive disorders were recorded in a checklist. This study showed that 67.5% of subjects had poor sleep quality. There was a significant relation between sleep quality, air lead (p = 0.02), and blood lead (p = 0.03). Bad sleep quality was 2.4 times higher in subjects exposed to lead above the threshold (p = 0.03). 92.5% of the population under study suffered from at least one digestive disorder. Digestive disorders such as hiccupping (85%) and nausea (67%) were more common among the workers, and their odds was 3.09 and 2.00 times higher in workers exposed to lead above the threshold, compared with others. Bad sleep quality and gastrointestinal disorders were prevalent among workers exposed to lead. The results of this study confirm the need for further research about the side effects of lead on humans. It also clarifies the need for a revision in the recommended occupational exposure level for lead.

Keywords

Lead Electronics industry Soldering Sleep hygiene Gastrointestinal disorders 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Dr. Abedi, PhD in Analytical Chemistry and the Simorgh Pharmaceutical Industry which helped us prepare and analyze the samples.

Funding information

This study was conducted with the financial support of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences and Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, and by grant number 3036-96.

References

  1. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). (2005). Toxicological profile for lead, US Department of Health and Human services (pp. 102–125). Atlanta: US Government Printing.Google Scholar
  2. Alakoc, C., & Eroğlu, H. E. (2011). Determining mitoticindex in peripheral lymphocytes of weldersexposed to metalarc welding fumes. Turkish Journal of Biology, 35(3), 325–350.Google Scholar
  3. Altevogt., B. M., & Colten, H. R. (2006). Sleep disorders and sleep deprivation: an unmet public health problem. National Academies Press; An Unmet Public Health Problem. Available: http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11617.html.
  4. Arasaratnam, M., et al. (2004). Occupational lead exposure of soldering workers in an electronic factory. Journal of Occupational Safety and Health, 95, 49.Google Scholar
  5. Barkhordari, A., et al. (2014a). The toxic effects of silver nanoparticles on blood mononuclear cells. The International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 5(3), 164–168.Google Scholar
  6. Barkhordari, A., et al. (2014b). The glycoprofile patterns of endothelial cells in usual interstitial pneumonia. The International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 5(4), 201–207.Google Scholar
  7. Bener, A., et al. (2001). A pilot survey of blood lead levels in various types of workers in the United Arab Emirates. Environment International, 27(4), 311–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Braun, J. M., et al. (2014). Relationships between lead biomarkers and diurnal salivary cortisol indices in pregnant women from Mexico City: a cross-sectionalstudy. Environmental Health, 13(1), 50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buysse, D. J., et al. (1989). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research, 28(2), 193–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chau, N., et al. (2004). Correlates of occupational injuries for various jobs in railway workers: a case-control study. Journal of Occupational Health, 46(4), 272–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chuang, H.-C., et al. (2018). Pulmonary exposure to metal fume particulate matter cause sleep disturbances in shipyard welders. Environmental Pollution, 232, 523–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dehghan-Nasiri, M., et al. (2012). Biological and environmental monitoring of lead and exposure in the automobile industry. Iran Occupational Health, 8(4), 1–8.Google Scholar
  13. Farrahi, J., et al. (2009). Psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index addendum for PTSD (PSQI-A). Sleep and Breathing, 13(3), 259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Flynn, M. R., & Susi, P. (2009). Neurological risks associated with manganese exposure from welding operations–a literature review. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 212(5), 459–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ghotbi, M. R., et al. (2013). Changes in urinary catecholamines in response to noise exposure in workers at Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex, Kerman, Iran. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185(11), 8809–8814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Golpayegani, A., & Khanjani, N. (2012). Occupational and environmental exposure to lead in Iran: a systematic review. Journal of Health and Development, 1(1), 74–89.Google Scholar
  17. Golter, M., & Michaelson, I. A. (1975). Growth, behavior, and brain catecholamines in lead-exposed neonatal rats: a reappraisal. Science, 187(4174), 359–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gump, B. B., et al. (2008). Low-level prenatal and postnatal blood lead exposure and adrenocortical responses to acute stress in children. Environmental Health Perspectives, 116(2), 249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Haas, H. L., & Konnerth, A. (1983). Histamine and noradrenaline decrease calcium-activated potassium conductance in hippocampal pyramidal cells. Nature, 302(5907), 432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hashemi Nejad, N., et al. (2013). Survey of relationship between mental health and job stress among midwives who were working in hospitals of Kerman, Iran, 2011. The Iranian journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility, 16(64), 1–9.Google Scholar
  21. Hayatbakhsh, M. M., et al. (2017). Lead poisoning among opium users in Iran: an emerging health hazard. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 12(1), 43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hussain, I. (2006). Investigation of heavy metals Cu, Pb, Cd, Mn, Cr, Fe and Ni in Ammi visnaga. Chemical Society of Pakistan, 28(3), 241–245.Google Scholar
  23. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (2006).Group authors from the World Heealth Organization. IARC Monographs on theevaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Lyon:2006, Retrieved fall, 2018, fromavailable: https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/lead-poisoning-and-health.
  24. Itani, O., et al. (2018). Sleep-related factors associated with industrial accidents among factory workers and sleep hygiene education intervention. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 1–13.Google Scholar
  25. Jacobs, B. L., & Azmitia, E. C. (1992). Structure and function of the brain serotonin system. Physiological Reviews, 72(1), 165–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jacobs, B., et al. (2008). Serotonin and sleep: molecular, functional and clinical aspects (pp. 185–204). Switzerland: Birkhauser Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Khanjani, N., et al. (2018). Breast milk contamination with lead and cadmium and its related factors in Kerman, Iran. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 16(2), 323–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Khorasani, G., et al. (2008). The comparison of lead and zinc plasma levels in gastric cancer patients with healthy volunteers. Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 3, 631–634.Google Scholar
  29. Lima, P., et al. (2002). Sleep-wake pattern of medical students: early versus late class starting time. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 35(11), 1373–1377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mahurpawar, M. (2015). Effects of heavy metals on human health. International Journal of Research Granthaalayah, 1–7.Google Scholar
  31. McGinty, D. T. (2009). Serotonin and sleep: Molecular, functional, and clinical aspects. Sleep, 32(5), 699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. McIntosh, M. J., et al. (1988). Influence of lead exposure on catecholamine metabolism in discrete rat brain nuclei. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part C, Comparative Pharmacology and Toxicology, 89(2), 211–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mohammadyan, M., et al. (2019a). Investigation of occupational exposure to lead and its relation with blood lead levels in electrical solderers. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 191, 126.Google Scholar
  34. Mohammadyan, M., et al. (2019b). Occupational exposure to styrene and its relation with urine mandelic acid, in plastic injection workers. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 191, 62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Monk, T., & Folkard, S. (2005). Shifts; problems and approaches, Translation by Alireza Chobineh. Shiraz University of Medical Press.Google Scholar
  36. Morris, C. J., et al. (2012). Circadian system, sleep and endocrinology. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 349(1), 91–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Naghavi, M. (2001). Death in eighteen provinces of Iran. Annual Report of Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education, 127, 340–346.Google Scholar
  38. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). (2003). Lead in blood and urine. Retrieved fall, 2018, from https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2003-154/pdfs/8003.pdf.
  39. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). (2006). Metal & metalloid particulates in workplace atmospheres(atomic absorption). Retrieved Winter 2018, from https://www.osha.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc_l.html.
  40. Parmalee, N. L., & Aschner, M. (2017). Metals and circadian rhythms. Advances in Neurotoxicology (Vol. 1, pp. 119–130). Elsevier.Google Scholar
  41. Rahimi Moghadam, S., et al. (2017a). Decline in lung function among cement production workers: a meta-analysis. Reviews on Environmental Health, 32(4), 333–341.Google Scholar
  42. Rahimi Moghadam, S., et al. (2017b). Shift work problems of healthcare workers at Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran, 2013. Journal of Occupational Health and Epidemiology, 6(4), 207–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Roodbandi, A. S. J., et al. (2017). Sleep quality and sleepiness: a comparison between nurses with and without shift work, and university employees. International Journal of Occupational Hygiene, 8(4), 230–236.Google Scholar
  44. Schober, S. E., et al. (2006). Blood lead levels and death from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: results from the NHANES III mortality study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(10), 1538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shahtaheri, S., & Afshari, D. (2007). Occupational toxicology (pp. 237–243). Tehran: Baraye Farda Publication.Google Scholar
  46. Wilhelm, M., et al. (2010). Reassessment of critical lead effects by the German Human Biomonitoring Commission results in suspension of the human biomonitoring values (HBM I and HBM II) for lead in blood of children and adults. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 213(4), 265–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. World Health Organisation. (1995). Biological indices of lead exposure and body burden. In: IPCS, Inorganic lead, Environmental Health Criteria 118, Geneva: WHO 165:114–18.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Health Science Research Center, Addiction InstituteMazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran
  2. 2.Basic Sciences DepartmentNeyshabur University of Medical SciencesNeyshaburIran
  3. 3.Environmental Health Engineering Research CenterKerman University of Medical ScienceKermanIran
  4. 4.Student Research Committee, Health Sciences Research Center, Faculty of HealthMazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran

Personalised recommendations