Evaluation of trophic status and its limiting factors in the Renuka Lake of Lesser Himalaya, India
- 31 Downloads
The present study is to evaluate trophic status and its limiting factors in the Renuka Lake, using surface water samples. The water of the lake is found to be slightly alkaline with pH 8.33–8.70 (avg. 8.61 ± 0.1). The turbidity 4.63–6.62 NTU (avg. 5.48 ± 0.63 NTU) indicated low level of clarity in the lake. The Carlson’s index based on the Secchi disc transparency (SD), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), and total phosphorus (TP) has indicated that the Renuka Lake is turned hyper-eutrophic in status. The correlation coefficient has indicated that most parameters in the lake are contributed by different sources. Factor-1 marked 26.40% variance, which may be due to higher impact of rock weathering than the anthropogenic activities, whereas 18.56% variance shown by factor-2 may be due to natural and anthropogenic activities. However, factor-3 (14.38% variance) inferred that the higher contribution of Chl-a, pH, TDS, NH4+, NO3−, salinity, and SO42− is due to major impacts of the anthropogenic activities. The inverse distance weighting method has indicated spatial interpolation and area of influence of different parameters in the lake. The “nutrient (TP) limited large sized algae” as well as phosphorus is considered as a major limiting factor for increasing productivity and trophic state index. The present study has inferred that the nutrient enrichment should be controlled to restore the Renuka Lake, owing to its social and ecological significances.
KeywordsCarlson’s index Factor analysis Limiting factors Spatial interpolation Trophic status
The authors thank the Hon’ble Vice Chancellor, Central University of Himachal Pradesh (CUHP) for his support and the In-charge, GB Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment and Sustainable Development, Mohal Kullu, Himachal Pradesh, India, for undertaking the lab analysis. The authors acknowledge the Director, Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dheradun, India. Dr. Khem Raj Sharma, Assistant Professor, Department of English and European Languages, CUHP, is highly acknowledged for editing the manuscript. The authors are also thankful to the administration of the Renuka Lake for providing boat facility during collection of the water samples.
- APHA. (2012). Standard method for the examination of water and wastewater (22nd ed.). Washington DC: American Public Health Association ISBN- 9780875530139.Google Scholar
- Barki, D. N., & Singa, P. (2014). Assessment of trophic state of lakes in terms of Carlson’s trophic state index. International Journal of Innovative Research In Science, Engineering and Technology, 3(7), 14297–14302.Google Scholar
- Carlson, & Robert, E. (1991). Expanding the trophic state concept to identify non-nutrient limited lakes and reservoirs. Enhancing the states’s lake management programs. pp. 59–71.Google Scholar
- Dixit, S., & Tiwari, S. (2005). Nutrient overloading of freshwater lake in Bhopal, India, Earth day, 21, ISSN-1076-7975.Google Scholar
- Elmaci, A., Ozengin, N., Teksoy, A., Topac, F. O., & Baskaya, H. S. (2009). Evaluation of trophic state of lake Uluabat, Turkey. Journal of Environmental Biology, 30(5), 757–760.Google Scholar
- Guyuan, L., Faping, B., Xiaoyi, X., Jia, C., & Weiqun, S. (2011). Seasonal variation of dissolved inorganic nutrients transported to the Linjiang bay of the three gorges reservoir China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 73, 55–64.Google Scholar
- Havens, & Karl, E. (2000). Using trophic state index (TSI) values to draw inferences regarding phytoplankton limiting factors and seston composition from routine water quality monitoring data. Korean Journal of Limnology, 33, 187–196.Google Scholar
- Jafri, S. I. H., Mahar, M. A., Baloch, W. A., & Narejo, N. T. (2006). Trophic State Index, morphoedaphic index and fish yield prediction in a sub-tropical lake, Manchar (Sindh), Pakistan. Bangladesh Journal of Fisheries Research, 10(2), 131–137.Google Scholar
- Kehayias, G., & Doulka, E. (2014). Trophic state evaluation of a large Mediterranean lake utilizing abiotic and biotic elements. Journal of Environmental Protection, 5(1), 17.Google Scholar
- Lo, C. P., & Yeung, A. K. W. (2002). Concepts and techniques of geographic information systems (p. 350). Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
- OECD. (1982). Eutrophication of waters: monitoring, assessment and control. Paris: Technical Report, Environmental Directorate, OECD, pp 147.Google Scholar
- Rahmati, R., Pourgholam, R., Najafpour, S. H., & Doustdar, M. (2011). Trophic status of a shallow lake (north of Iran) based on the water quality and the phytoplankton community. World Applied Sciences Journal, 14, 112–120.Google Scholar
- Rai, S. P., Kumar, V., Singh, O., Kumar, B., & Jain, A. (2001). Limnological Study of the Mansar lake of District Udhampur, J&K, Final Project Report, NIH WHRC, Jammu cant.Google Scholar
- Sarkar, S., Prakasam, M., Banerji, U. S., Bhushan, R., Gaury, P. K., & Meena, N. K. (2016). Rapid sedimentation history of Rewalsar Lake, Lesser Himalaya, India during the last fifty years - estimated using 137Cs and 210Pb dating techniques: a comparative study with other North-Western Himalayan lakes. Himalayan Geology, 37(1), 1–7.Google Scholar
- Schindler, D. W. (2012). The dilemma of controlling cultural eutrophication of lake. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. https://doi.org/10.1097/rspb.1032.
- Singh, O., Rai, S. P., Kumar, V., Sharma, M. K. & Choubey, V. K. (2008). Water quality and eutrophication status of some lakes of the western Himalayan region (India). Proceeding of Taal- 2007: the 12th world lake conference, pp. 286–291.Google Scholar
- Ward, B. B. (2008). Nitrification in marine systems. Nitrogen in the marine environment, 2, pp. 199–261.Google Scholar
- Wetzel, R. G. (2001). Limnology: lake and river ecosystems. Gulf professional publishing.Google Scholar
- Yu, H., Xi, B., Jiang, J., Heaphy, M. J., Wang, H., & Li, D. (2011). Environmental heterogeneity analysis, assessment of trophic state and source identification in Chaohu Lake, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 18(8), 1333–1342.Google Scholar