Bioconcentration and translocation of Cd and Hg in a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) from cultivated soils in southeastern Brazil
- 126 Downloads
Food is the main source of toxic metals like mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) to humans. This study evaluated the accumulation and translocation of Cd and Hg in a soil-plant system in four tomato plantations and assessed the risk associated with ingestion of these metals. Ten soil samples (rhizosphere) and 10 samples of plant tissues (leaf, ripe fruit, green fruit, and roots) were collected in each plantation. Spatial variation in Cd and Hg concentrations was negligible. The Cd level in rhizosphere was lower in comparison with that of plant tissues. Hg levels in rhizosphere were similar to roots and higher than the value observed in aerial parts of plants. The Cd bioconcentration factor was approximately five times higher compared to that of Hg. Approximately 93% and 48.6% of Cd and Hg accumulated in roots reached aerial parts, respectively. Our results indicate that tomato readily absorbs Cd accumulated in soil, translocating it to aerial parts. Comparatively, the absorption of Hg is not efficient. Levels of Cd in tomatoes were over 17 times higher than the maximum residual levels in 57.5% of ripe fruits and in 27.5% of green tomatoes.
KeywordsAgricultural soil Mercury Cadmium Tomato Risk assessment
The authors thank the Laboratory of Environmental Sciences of the State University of the North of Rio de Janeiro (Laboratório de Ciências Ambientais, LCA, da Universidade Estadual Norte Fluminense, UENF) for metal determinations.
C.M.M. Souza received financial support from the Carlos Chagas Filho Research Support Foundation of the State of Rio de Janeiro (Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, FAPERJ; C-26/111.368/2012). This study was also financed in part by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoa de Nível Superior – Brazil (CAPES) – Finance Code 001.
- Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) (2013) Provides for the MERCOSUR Technical Regulation on Maximum Limits of Inorganic Contaminants in Foods. Resolution RDC n. 42, of August 29, 2013, ANVISA, Brasilia, Brazil.Google Scholar
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2017) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Priority list of hazardous substances. Digital report. https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/spl/. Accessed 4 Dec 2016.
- Ahmad, A., Hadi, F., & Ali, N. (2015). Effective phytoextraction of cadmium (Cd) with increasing concentration of total phenolics and free proline in Cannabis sativa (L) plant under various treatments of fertilizers, plant growth regulators and sodium salt. Int J Phytor, 17, 56–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Behring, S. B. (2007). Influência do manejo do solo e da dinâmica da água no sistema de produção do tomate de mesa: subsídios a sustentabilidade agrícola do Noroeste Fluminense. PhD thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Google Scholar
- Bonanno, G., Vymazal, J., & Cirelli, G. L. (2018). Translocation, accumulation and bioindication of trace elements in wetland plants. SciTotal Environ, 631-632, 252–261.Google Scholar
- Câmara, V. M., Campos, R. C., Perez, M. A., Tambelini, A. T., & Klein, C. H. (1986). Teores de mercúrio no cabelo: um estudo comparativo em trabalhadores da lavoura de cana-de-açúcar com exposição pregressa aos fungicidas organo-mercuriais no município de Campos-RJ. Cad Saúde Pública, 2, 359–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Camargo, F. P., & Filho, W. P. C. (2008). Produção de tomate de mesa no Brasil, 1990-2006: contribuição da área e da produtividade. Horicultura Brasileira, 26, 1018–1021.Google Scholar
- Chinese Environmental Protection Administration (CEPA). (1990). Elemental background values of soils in China. Beijing: Environmental Science Press of China.Google Scholar
- Clemens, S. (2006). Toxic metal accumulation responses to exposure and mechanisms of tolerance in plants. Biochim, 8, 707–1719.Google Scholar
- Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente (CONAMA). (2009). Resolution no. 420 of 28 December 2009. http://www.mma.gobr/port/conama/legiabre.cfm?codlegi=620. Accessed 28 December 2016.
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). (2009). CODEX general standard for contaminants and toxins in food and feed (pp. 193–1995). CODEX STAN http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/livestockgov/documents/1_CXS_193e.pdf. Accessed 27 Jan 2017.
- Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations (FAOSTAT), World Productivity (2013) http://faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx. Accessed 04 Set 2017.
- Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). (2010). Household per capita food purchase per group, subgroups and products. Family Budget Research in, 2008–2009.Google Scholar
- Jesus, T. B., Carvalho, C. E. V., Ferreira, A. G., Siqueira, E. M., & Machado, A. L. S. (2012). Mercury distribution in muscular tissue of a tropical carnivorous fish (Hoplias malabaricus) from four lakes in the north of Rio de Janeiro state, SE Brazil. Journal of the Brazilian Society of Ecotoxicology, 7, 37–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lacerda, L. D., Paraquetti, H. H. M., Rezende, C. E., Silva, L. F. F., Silva Filho, E. V., Marins, R. V., & Ribeiro, M. G. (2002). Mercury concentrations in bulk atmospheric deposition over the coast of Rio de Janeiro Southeast Brazil. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 13, 165–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McLaughlin MJ, Singh BR (1999). Cadmium in soils and plants. In: McLaughlin M.J., Singh B.R. (eds) Cadmium in soils and plants. Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences Springer Dordrecht 85:1–9.Google Scholar
- National Food Safety Standard of Maximum Levels of Contaminants in Foods (CHINA). (2014). Beijing. Accessed 27 January 2017.Google Scholar
- R Core Team. (2018). R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.Google Scholar
- Rempe, E. F., Amorim, L. A., Vasconcelos Neto, R. (2010). Information collection on mercury including environmental standards in Brazil. 4th Meeting of the Mercury Lamps Working Group. Technical Chamber of Health Environmental Sanitation and Waste Management of the National Environment Council. Department of Environmental Health Surveillance and Occupational Health Brasília, Brazil.Google Scholar
- Rodríguez, E., Peralta-Videa, J. R., Israr, M., Sahi, S. V., Pelayo, H., Sáchez-Salcido, B., & Gardea-Torresdey, J. L. (2009). Effect of mercury and gold on growth, nutrient uptake, and anatomical changes in Chilopsis linearis. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 65, 253–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Santos, E. J., Herrmann, A. B., Frescura, V. L. A., & Curtius, A. J. (2005). Simultaneous determination of As, Hg, Sb, Se and Sn in sediments by slurry sampling axial view inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry using on-line chemical vapor generation with internal standardization. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 20, 538–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tran, T. A., Vassileva, V., Petrov, P., & Popova, L. P. (2013). Cadmium-induced structural disturbances in Pisum sativum leaves are alleviated by nitric oxide. Turkish Journal of Botany, 37, 698–707.Google Scholar