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Environmental and socioeconomic factors induced blood lead in children: an investigation from Kashmir, India

  • Asmat Rashid
  • Rouf Ahmad BhatEmail author
  • Humaira Qadri
  • Mohammad Aneesul Mehmood
  • Shafiq-ur-Rehman
Article

Abstract

Blood lead toxicity has been prominently related to vehicular emissions. The lead is a carcinogenic metal systematically damages bones and central nervous system. The present investigation is focused on likely impacts of environmental and socioeconomic factors on the concentration of blood lead levels in children. The findings of the study show that the highest blood lead levels were observed in the age group of 4–8 years (5.46 μg/dl) with mother’s education having an inverse proportionality with the blood lead levels of children. Furthermore, children belonging to families with income (> 100,000) exhibited the highest blood lead levels (5.52 μg/dl) than the rest of the categories which was further advocated by lower blood lead levels in children residing in better residential conditions. High proximity of school to highway distance seemed to play a vital role in the concentration of lead in children while the traffic flow density was observed to have proportionality effect on the blood lead levels. From the study, it is concluded that 28% of the children in the sample population were having lead levels above the permissible limits as per Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. The study reflects the alarming toxicity of lead in children residing in a non-industrial region which further gives rise to concerns about the health of the children residing in industrialized regions of the world with high lead levels in the environment.

Keywords

Blood lead levels Environmental factors Socioeconomic School proximity Traffic density Lead exposure 

Notes

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Asmat Rashid
    • 1
  • Rouf Ahmad Bhat
    • 1
    Email author
  • Humaira Qadri
    • 2
  • Mohammad Aneesul Mehmood
    • 2
  • Shafiq-ur-Rehman
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Environmental SciencesSher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and TechnologyShalimarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Environment and Water Management Sri Pratap College CampusCluster University SrinagarSrinagarIndia

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