Impact of tourism disturbance on forest vegetation in Wutai Mountain, China
- 43 Downloads
Tourism is one of the primary disturbances to forest vegetation worldwide. To understand the impacts of tourism, it is important to first identify the ecological characteristics of damaged forest vegetation. Here, we investigate different ecological patterns in disturbed and undisturbed regions of Wutai Mountain, China. Comparisons between disturbed and undisturbed forest community were conducted using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA). The TWINSPAN analysis identified 13 association types from 76 total samples collected. The DCA correlation analysis showed that forest community was significantly affected by physiographical factors (such as elevation and slope) in the undisturbed region; however, that was correlated with not only physiographical factors but also intensity of tourism, and the effect of tourism disturbance was stronger than that of physiographical factors in the disturbed regions. In addition, some indicator species were discovered. Our findings provide valuable information about conservation and management of sustainable tourism in the region.
KeywordsMonitoring and management Indicator species Physiographical factors Disturbance
We would like to thank Dr. Murphy Stephen at the Yale University for his assistance with English language and grammatical editing of the manuscript.
This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41571141).
- Bar, P. (2017). Visitor trampling impacts on soil and vegetation: the case study of Ramat Hanadiv Park, Israel. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences, 64, 145–161.Google Scholar
- Cheng, Z. H. (2015). The research on ecological effect and management in ecological tourism. Beijing: China finance and economics press.Google Scholar
- Czortek, P., Delimat, A., Dyderski, M. K., Zięba, A., Jagodziński, A. M., & Jaroszewicz, B. (2018). Climate change, tourism and historical grazing influence the distribution of Carex lachenalii Schkuhr—a rare arctic-alpine species in the Tatra Mts. Science of the Total Environment, 618, 1628–1637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Davenport, J., & Switalski, T. A. (2006). Environmental impacts of transport, related to tourism and leisure activities. In J. Davenport & J. L. Davenport (Eds.), The ecology of transportation: managing mobility for the environment (pp. 333–360). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
- Dobay, G., Dobay, B., S-Falusi, E., Hajnáczki, S., Penksza, K., Bajor, Z., Lampert, R., Bakó, G., Wichmann, B., & Szerdahelyi, T. (2017). Effects of sport tourism on temperate grassland communities (duna-ipoly national park, Hungary). Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 15(1), 457–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hill, M. O. (1979). TWINSPAN: a Fortran program for arranging multivariate data in an ordered two-way table by classification of the individuals and attributes. New York: Cornell University.Google Scholar
- Sundriyal, S., Shridhar, V., Madhwal, S., Pandey, K., & Sharma, V. (2018). Impacts of tourism development on the physical environment of Mussoorie, a hill station in the lower Himalayan range of India. Journal of Mountain Science, 15(10), 2276–2291.Google Scholar
- TerBraak, C. J. F. (1988). CANOCO: a FORTRAN program for canonical community ordination by [Partial] [Detrended] [Canonical] correspondence analysis, principal component analysis and redundancy analysis (Version 2.1). Wageningen: Agricultural Math Group.Google Scholar
- Zhang, J. T. (1986). The vegetation types and their distribution on Wutai Mountains in Shanxi province. Journal of Shanxi University (Nature Science Edition), 9(2), 87–91 (in Chinese).Google Scholar