Quantitative analysis of urban cold island effects on the evolution of green spaces in a coastal city: a case study of Fuzhou, China
- 29 Downloads
Urbanization is accompanied by drastic changes in the distribution of urban green space (UGS). This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the land surface temperature difference (∆LST) and the evolution of UGSs in the main area of Fuzhou City from 1993 to 2013 using a set of remote sensing images. The results manifest that with the maximum area of UGS loss, the less UGS extension, and the less UGS exchange, the UGS area declined sharply, which results in the rise of urban thermal problem and demonstrates the negative relationship between the UGS area and its internal land surface temperature (LST). Different UGS evolution types produced a diversified temperature response pattern. According to the profile assessment, a ∆LST above 10 °C, caused by the UGS loss converted to construction land, occurred in the peak position of the online profiles. Among the UGS loss, the conversion of water had the most apparent ∆LST, followed by wetlands and forest/grass areas. The threshold value of the UGS loss area (TVoA) was quantified by analyzing the temperature change effects based on the UGS evolution temperature effect index (GETX). We concluded that the urban heat island (UHI) can be effectively alleviated by keeping the magnitude of the UGS extensions equal to the UGS loss and the UGS utilization area below 0.04 km2 in Fuzhou City. Further analysis clarified that vegetation cover changes and the evolution of UGSs were the main factors controlling the distribution of the cold/heat island.
KeywordsLST Quantitative analysis UGS evolution Urban cold island effect
Land use/land cover
Urban green space
Urban heat island
Urban cold island
Land surface temperature
Relative land surface temperature
UGS evolution temperature changeeffectindex
Threshold value of UGS loss area
Many thanks to Chinese Academy of Sciences for their data sharing platforms known as Geographic Space Cloud (http://www.gscloud.cn/) and the Open Spatial Data Sharing Project (http://ids.ceode.ac.cn/).
Tong Chuan designed the overall ideas for this study. Chen Yanhong and Cai Yuanbin performed the data analysis. Chen Yanhong wrote this manuscript and all the authors got involved in discussion of improving the quality of this manuscript. Tong Chuan was responsible for the academic opinion of this manuscript.
This study is supported by the Social Science Planning Project of Fujian (No. FJ2016C033).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Barsi, J. A., Schott, J. R., Palluconi, F. D., & Hook, S. J. (2005). Validation of a web-based atmospheric correction tool for single thermal band instruments. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 58820.Google Scholar
- Fu, B. J., Zhao, W. W., & Chen, L. D. (2006). Progress and perspective of geographical-ecological processes. Acta Geographica Sinica, 61(11), 1123–1131 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Gao, Y., Xie, M. M., Fu, M. C., et al. (2014). Pattern dynamics of vegetation coverage of Plateau Valley-City in the Western China: A case study in Xining. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 34(5), 1094–1104.Google Scholar
- Li, S. C., Zhao, Z. Q., & Wang, Y. L. (2009). Urbanization process and effects of natural resource and environment in China: Research trends and future directions. Progress in Geography, 28(1), 63–70 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Li, G. D., Zhang, X., Mirzaei, A. P., et al. (2018). There is considerable correlation between comprehensive urbanization index and UHI. Sustain Cities Soc, 38, 736–745.Google Scholar
- National Bureau of Statistics of China, (2015). China statistical yearbook. Beijing: China Statistical Publishing House.Google Scholar
- Qin, Z. H., Zhang, M. H., et al. (2001). Mono-window algorithm for retrieving land surface temperature from Landsat TM6 data. Acta Geo Sinorama, 56(4), 456–466 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Qin, Z., Li, W., Zhang, M., Karnieli, A., & Berliner, P. (2003). Estimating of the essential atmospheric parameters of mono-window algorithm for land surface temperature retrieval from Landsat TM 6. Remote Sensing for Land & Resources, 15(2), 37–43 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Van, N. O., Kawamura, K., Trong, D. P., et al. (2015). Temporal change and its spatial variety on land surface temperature and land use changes in the red River Delta, Vietnam, using MODIS time-series imagery. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(7), 1–11.Google Scholar
- Wu, L. N., Yang, S. T., Liu, X. Y., et al. (2014). Response analysis of land use change to the degree of human activities in Beiluo River basin since 1976. Acta Geo Sinorama, 69(1), 54–63 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Xu, H. Q. (2009). Quantitative analysis on the relationship of urban impervious surface with other components of the urban ecosystem. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 29(5), 2456–2462 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Yu, Z. W., Guo, Q. H., & Sun, R. H. (2015). Impact of urban cooling effect based on landscape scale: A review. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 26, 636–642.Google Scholar
- Žuvela-Aloise, M., Koch R., Buchholz S., et al., 2016. Modelling the potential of green and blue infrastructure to reduce urban heat load in the city of Vienna. Clim. Change (135): 1–14.Google Scholar