Assessment of surface water quality using water quality index and multivariate statistical analyses in Saraydüzü Dam Lake, Turkey

  • Serkan KükrerEmail author
  • Ekrem Mutlu


In this study, observations were carried out in the surface waters of Saraydüzü Dam Lake within Sinop provincial borders for 1 year to determine water quality. The basic 28 variables used to determine water quality were measured monthly at six stations. Taking into account the World Health Organization's drinking water standards, the water quality index (WQI) and Turkey’s Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs Surface Water Quality Regulations (SWQR) were used in determining the water quality. In addition, irrigation water quality was examined. For this, sodium absorption rates (SAR), sodium percentage and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) values were calculated. WQI values in the lake were found to be between 17.62 and 29.88. Water quality parameters did not exceed the recommended limit values in all months and at all stations. According to these values, the Saraydüzü Dam Lake water belongs to the ‘very good’ class in terms of drinking water quality. The results obtained showed that there were no nitrogen or phosphate inputs that could harm the ecosystem in the lake and that there were no low/insufficient ambient oxygen conditions resulting from excessive oxygen consumption during the degradation process of organic matter. All water quality parametres are well below the permissible limits except some heavy metals according to SWQR. Cu, Zn and Fe were found to exceed the limit values. The water quality of irrigation water was found to be good in terms of SAR and sodium percentage, whereas RSC was observed to have varying qualities during the year and not be suitable for irrigation in some months. According to results of factor analysis (FA), pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, suspended solid matter (SSM), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total hardness (TH),total alkalinity (TA), calcium, nitrate, ammonium, mercury and dissolved oxygen are the main variables responsible for the processes in the ecosystem.


Saraydüzü Dam Lake Water quality Water quality index Irrigation water quality Surface water 



The authors would like to thank Şakir Fural for drafting the location map. We thank anonymous reviewers and Associate Editor Prof. Yu-Pin Lin for their helpful comments. Graham Lee is thanked for proof-reading the earlier version of the text.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography, Faculty of Social Sciences and HumanitiesArdahan UniversityArdahanTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of FisheriesKastamonu UniversityKastamonuTurkey

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