Temporal variability of suspended solids in construction runoff and evaluation of time-paced sampling strategies

  • Raja Umer Sajjad
  • Ma Cristina Paule-Mercado
  • Imran Salim
  • Sheeraz Memon
  • Chinzorig Sukhbaatar
  • Chang-Hee LeeEmail author


The construction sites have been considered the type of land use with the highest pollution potential, especially due to the erosion of exposed soil surfaces. The runoff monitoring of the construction site was carried out since June 2011 through December 2015. Based on land use land cover (LULC) classification, the monitoring period was divided into active and post-construction phases. Total suspended solids (TSS) showed evident inter-phase variability in average annual event mean concentration (AAEMC) and wash-off pattern. We suggested that stringent runoff control measures should be adopted during active construction phase. Similarly, Personalized Computer Storm Water Management Model (PCSWMM) was applied to evaluate the performance of the time-paced discrete and composite sampling scheme in continuously changing LC scenario. It was found that even though the time-paced composite sampling scheme is more cost effective, it showed lower performance in EMC estimation when compared with the time-paced discrete sampling approach. The results also showed that the storm event monitored at a time discrete frequency of 5 min, 10 min, and 15 min, the maximum expected mean bias will be under the accepted level of 10% of the true EMC value. We concluded that construction phase-specific modifications in sampling scheme provides a view to generate near accurate estimates.


Stormwater Sampling design Land use Modeling Mass emission 


Authorship contributions

The conception and design of the study was performed by Raja Umer Sajjad and Prof. Chang-Hee Lee. The field data acquisition and laboratory analysis were performed by Raja Umer Sajjad, Ma Cristina Paule-Mercado, Imran Salim, Sheeraz Memon, and Chinzorig Sukhbaatar. The construction, calibration and validation of PCSWMM model used in this study was performed by Ma Cristina Paule-Mercado. The analysis and interpretation of the data and drafting of the manuscript was done by Raja Umer Sajjad, whereas Prof. Chang-Hee Lee revised the manuscript critically for important intellectual contents. All authors (Raja Umer Sajjad, Ma Cristina Paule-Mercado, Imran Salim, Sheeraz Memon, Chinzorig Sukhbaatar, and Chang-Hee Lee) approved this version of the manuscript to be submitted.


This study was supported by the Korea Environmental Technology and Industrial Institute as the Next Generation Eco-Innovation Project (No. 413-111-003). This research was also part of the project entitled “Development of Integrated Estuarine Management System”, (No. 20140431), funded by the Ministry of Ocean and Fisheries, Korea.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raja Umer Sajjad
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ma Cristina Paule-Mercado
    • 1
  • Imran Salim
    • 1
  • Sheeraz Memon
    • 3
  • Chinzorig Sukhbaatar
    • 4
  • Chang-Hee Lee
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Engineering and EnergyMyongji UniversityYongin-siRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Environmental ScienceCOMSATS University IslamabadAbbotabadPakistan
  3. 3.Institute of Environmental Engineering and ManagementMehran University of Engineering and TechnologyJamshoroPakistan
  4. 4.Division of Water Resource and Water Utilization, Institute of Geography and GeoecologyAcademy of ScienceUlaanbaatarMongolia

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