Occupational exposure to styrene and its relation with urine mandelic acid, in plastic injection workers
- 20 Downloads
Plastic injection industry workers are exposed to toxic gases and vapors, including styrene. This study aimed to measure exposure to styrene and its relation with urine mandelic acid among plastics injection workers of the electrical parts industry. This descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study was carried out in the plastic injection halls of the electronics industry, in winter 2017 and spring 2018. Styrene gas in the workers’ respiratory region was sampled by the NIOSH 1501 method and was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MAS). Mandelic acid concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Statistical data analysis was performed with STATA11. The mean of age and working experience in the population under study were 32.4 ± 8.1 and 6.4 ± 5 years, respectively. The average exposure to styrene was 83.2 ± 32.4 mg·m−3 and the mean of urine mandelic acid was 1570.1 ± 720.6 mg·g ceratinine−1. There were 24 workers (45.3%) exposed to levels above permissible limits recommended by national and international organizations. There was a positive and significant correlation between exposure to styrene and urine mandelic acid (P = 0.006, r = 0.4). In multivariate regression, occupational exposure to styrene (P = 0.002, β = 0.5) was the strongest variable, predicting the amount of urine mandelic acid. Increased occupational exposure to styrene increases mandelic acid in the urine, and applying control measures to reduce exposure to styrene vapor is recommended in high exposure situations.
KeywordsStyrene Mandelic acid Plastic injection Worker
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2010). Toxicological profile for styrene. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Atlanta. Available in: https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles. Fall 2018
- Barkhordari, A., et al. (2014a). The toxic effects of silver nanoparticles on blood mononuclear cells. The International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 5(3), 394-164-398.Google Scholar
- Barkhordari, A., et al. (2014b). The glycoprofile patterns of endothelial cells in usual interstitial pneumonia. The international Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 5(4), 387-201-387.Google Scholar
- Dooley, C. (2009). American Chemistry Council. Revisiting the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976.Google Scholar
- Hashemi Nejad, N., et al. (2013). Survey of relationship between mental health and job stress among midwives who were working in hospitals of Kerman, Iran, 2011. The Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility, 16(64), 1–9.Google Scholar
- Hygienists, A. C. o. G. I. and (ACGIH) (1991). Threshold limit values for chemicalsubstances and physical agents and biological indicesfor 1991–1992. https://www.acgih.org. Fall 2018
- International Labour Organization (ILO) (2010), Guide to occupations: plasic industy, Encyclopedia of occupational health and safety available in; http://www.iloencyclopaedia.org/component/k2/item/381-plastics-industry. Fall 2018
- Ministry of Health. (2017). Treatment and medical training, occupational exposure limit. Tehran: Environmental Research Institute of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.Google Scholar
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), (2003) Available in; https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2003-154/pdfs/1501.pdf.
- Sollenberg, J., et al. (1988). Biological exposure limits estimated from relations between occupational styrene exposure during a workweek and excretion of mandelic and phenylglyoxylic acids in urine. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 60(5), 365–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sorsa, M., et al. (1991). Styrene revisited--exposure assessment and risk estimation in reinforced plastics industry. Progress in Clinical and Biological Research, 372, 187–195.Google Scholar