Advertisement

Rural population mobility, deforestation, and urbanization: case of Turkey

  • Hasan Emre Ünal
  • Üstüner Birben
  • Ferhat Bolat
Article

Abstract

The benefits of the forests are well known and are by their existence alone an amenity. Nonetheless, urbanization as one of the most remarkable features of social development has immense effects on forest resources and land use. In this study, it is hypothesized that there are temporal interactions among the rural population dynamics, urbanization, and forest resources. Data set is based on rural population, total population, and forest areas for the period of 1990–2017. Regression analysis (the ordinary least square, OLS) and dummy variable in regression were used by taking the years into consideration. The coefficient of total population in the regression model developed in our study was positive, which means with the increasing total population, there is an increase in forest areas as well, contrary to common opinion in the literature. With this study, a positive/linear temporal relation between the forest area and urbanization via the regression statistics was determined. There is a significant inverse relation between rural population decline and forest area increase too. Our results provide also a compelling evidence that rural population mobility, afforestation, and forestry policy have strong effects and play an important role over the forest management and forest policy in Turkey.

Keywords

Rural population dynamics Urbanization Forest policy Afforestation Dummy variables 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Dr. Sabit Erşahin for his suggestions and two anonymous reviewers for the valuable comments.

References

  1. ADNKS (2013). Adrese Dayalı Nüfus Kayıt Sistemi. Accessed 4 Mar 2016. http://tuikapp.tuik.gov.tr/ADNKS.
  2. Alkan, S. (2014). Kırsal Nüfus Değişiminin, Ormanlar ve Ormancılık Üzerine Etkileri (Trabzon İli Örneği). Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty, 14(1), 69–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen, J. C., & Barnes, D. F. (1985). The causes of deforestation in developing countries. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 75(2), 163–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen, K. E., & Padgett Vásquez, S. (2017). Forest cover, development, and sustainability in Costa Rica: can one policy fit all? Land Use Policy, 67, 212–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allington, G. R. H., Li, W., & Brown, D. G. (2017). Urbanization and environmental policy effects on the future availability of grazing resources on the Mongolian Plateau: modeling socio-environmental system dynamics. Environmental Science & Policy, 68, 35–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Angelsen, A., & Kaimowitz, D. (1999). Rethinking the causes of deforestation: lessons from economic models. The World Bank Research Observer, 14(1), 73–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bengston, D. N., Potts, R. S., Fan, D. P., & Goetz, E. G. (2005). An analysis of the public discourse about urban sprawl in the United States: monitoring concern about a major threat to forests. Forest Policy and Economics, 7(5), 745–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blaikie, P., & Brookfield, H. (1987). Land degradation and society. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  9. Calle, L., Canadell, J. G., Patra, P., Ciais, P., Ichii, K., Tian, H., Kondo, M., Piao, S., Arneth, A., Harper, A. B., Ito, A., Kato, E., Koven, C., Sitch, S., Stocker, B. D., Vivoy, N., Wiltshire, A., Zaehle, S., & Poulter, B. (2016). Regional carbon fluxes from land use and land cover change in Asia, 1980–2009. Environmental Research Letters, 11(7), 074011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Christopoulou, O., Polyzos, S., & Minetos, D. (2007). Peri-urban and urban forests in Greece: obstacle or advantage to urban development? Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 18(4), 382–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ciesielski, M., & Stereńczak, K. (2018). What do we expect from forests? The European view of public demands. Journal of Environmental Management, 209, 139–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coletta, V., Lombardi, F., Altieri, V., Bombino, G., Marcianò, C., Menguzzato, G., & Marziliano, P. A. (2016). Environmental resources conservation through sustainable forest management. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 223, 758–763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. d’Annunzio, R., Sandker, M., Finegold, Y., & Min, Z. (2015). Projecting global forest area towards 2030. Forest Ecology and Management, 352, 124–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. De Chant, T., Hernando Gallego, A., Velázquez Saornil, J., & Kelly, M. (2010). Urban influence on changes in linear forest edge structure. Landscape and Urban Planning, 96(1), 12–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Delphin, S., Escobedo, F. J., Abd-Elrahman, A., & Cropper, W. P. (2016). Urbanization as a land use change driver of forest ecosystem services. Land Use Policy, 54, 188–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. DPT (1997). Ulusal Çevre Eylem Planı. Devlet Planlama Teşkilatı, Ankara.Google Scholar
  17. DTP (2007). Dokuzuncu Kalkınma Planı Ormancılık Özel İhtisas Komisyonu Raporu. Ankara.Google Scholar
  18. EC (2009). Ecosystem goods and services European Commission. Accessed 22 Mar 2017. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/info/pubs/docs/ecosystem.pdf.
  19. Erkan Buğday, S., & Özden, S. (2017). The relationship between terrain and rural migration (1965–2013) on the north of Turkey (the case of Kastamonu). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 189(4), 154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gibson, J. (2018). Forest loss and economic inequality in the Solomon Islands: using small-area estimation to link environmental change to welfare outcomes. Ecological Economics, 148, 66–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. GLP (2005). Science plan and implementation strategy. Stockholm.Google Scholar
  22. Göl, C., Özden, S., & Yilmaz, H. (2011). Interactions between rural migration and land use change in the forest villages in the Gökçay Watershed. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 35, 247–257.Google Scholar
  23. Grau, H.R., Aide, M. (2008). Globalization and land use transitions in Latin America. Ecology and Society, 13(2), 60p.Google Scholar
  24. Gray, C. L., & Bilsborrow, R. E. (2014). Consequences of out-migration for land use in rural Ecuador. Land Use Policy, 36, 182–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. He, C., Zhang, D., Huang, Q., & Zhao, Y. (2016). Assessing the potential impacts of urban expansion on regional carbon storage by linking the LUSD-urban and InVEST models. Environmental Modelling & Software, 75, 44–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hosonuma, N., Herold, M., De Sy, V., De Fries, R. S., Brockhaus, M., Verchot, L., Angelsen, A., & Romijn, E. (2012). An assessment of deforestation and forest degradation drivers in developing countries. Environmental Research Letters, 7(4), 044009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hoyer, R., & Chang, H. (2014). Assessment of freshwater ecosystem services in the Tualatin and Yamhill basins under climate change and urbanization. Applied Geography, 53, 402–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Huang, S., Meng, S. X., & Yang, Y. (2009). Estimating a nonlinear mixed volume-age model with and without taking into account serially-correlated errors: differences and implications. Modern Applied Science, 3(5), 3–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. KB (2013). Onuncu Kalkınma Planı (2014–2018). Ankara.Google Scholar
  30. Keenan, R. J., Reams, G. A., Achard, F., de Freitas, J. V., Grainger, A., & Lindquist, E. (2015). Dynamics of global forest area: results from the FAO global forest resources assessment 2015. Forest Ecology and Management, 352, 9–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Keleş, S., Durusoy, İ., & Çakır, G. (2017). Analysis of the changes in forest ecosystem functions, structure and composition in the Black Sea region of Turkey. Journal of Forestry Research, 28(2), 329–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kishor, N., & Belle, A. (2004). Does improved governance contribute to sustainable forest management? Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 19(1–3), 55–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kissinger, G., Herold, M., & De Sy, V. (2002). Drivers of deforestation and forest degradation: A synthesis report for REDD+ Policymake. Kissinger, G Herold, M De Sy, Veronique, 1–46.Google Scholar
  34. Köthke, M., Leischner, B., & Elsasser, P. (2013). Uniform global deforestation patterns—an empirical analysis. Forest Policy and Economics, 28, 23–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lele, N., Joshi, P. K., & Agrawal, S. P. (2008). Assessing forest fragmentation in northeastern region (NER) of India using landscape matrices. Ecological Indicators, 8(5), 657–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Li, Y., Li, Y., Zhou, Y., Shi, Y., & Zhu, X. (2012). Investigation of a coupling model of coordination between urbanization and the environment. Journal of Environmental Management, 98, 127–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lin, S.-W., & Ben, T.-M. (2009). Impact of government and industrial agglomeration on industrial land prices: a Taiwanese case study. Habitat International, 33(4), 412–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Liu, Y., Huang, X., Yang, H., & Zhong, T. (2014). Environmental effects of land-use/cover change caused by urbanization and policies in Southwest China Karst area – a case study of Guiyang. Habitat International, 44, 339–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. MAE. (2003). Ecosystems and human well-being: a framework for assessment. Washington D.C.: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Island Press.Google Scholar
  40. Marziliano, P. A., Lafortezza, R., Colangelo, G., Davies, C., & Sanesi, G. (2013). Structural diversity and height growth models in urban forest plantations: a case-study in northern Italy. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 12(2), 246–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mooney, H. A., Duraiappah, A., & Larigauderie, A. (2013). Evolution of natural and social science interactions in global change research programs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(Suppl(Supplement 1)), 3665–3672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nightingale, A. (2003). Nature–society and development: social, cultural and ecological change in Nepal. Geoforum, 34(4), 525–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. OGM (2012). Annual administrative activity report. Ankara.Google Scholar
  44. OGM (2014). Ormancılık İstatistikleri.Google Scholar
  45. OGM (2015). Türkiye Orman Varlığı. Ankara.Google Scholar
  46. Pennington, D. N., Hansel, J. R., & Gorchov, D. L. (2010). Urbanization and riparian forest woody communities: diversity, composition, and structure within a metropolitan landscape. Biological Conservation, 143(1), 182–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Piussi, P., & Farrell, E. P. (2000). Interactions between society and forest ecosystems: challenges for the near future. Forest Ecology and Management, 132(1), 21–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ramakrishnan, P. S. (1998). Ecology, economics and ethics. International Journal of Social Economics, 25(2/3/4), 207–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sanesi, G., Lafortezza, R., Marziliano, P. A., Ragazzi, A., & Mariani, L. (2007). Assessing the current status of urban forest resources in the context of Parco Nord, Milan, Italy. Landscape and Ecological Engineering, 3(2), 187–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sicard, P., Augustaitis, A., Belyazid, S., Calfapietra, C., de Marco, A., Fenn, M., Bytnerowicz, A., Grulke, N., He, S., Matyssek, R., Serengil, Y., Wieser, G., & Paoletti, E. (2016). Global topics and novel approaches in the study of air pollution, climate change and forest ecosystems. Environmental Pollution, 213, 977–987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Su, S., Jiang, Z., Zhang, Q., & Zhang, Y. (2011). Transformation of agricultural landscapes under rapid urbanization: a threat to sustainability in Hang-Jia-Hu region, China. Applied Geography, 31(2), 439–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Taylor, M. J., Aguilar-Støen, M., Castellanos, E., Moran-Taylor, M. J., & Gerkin, K. (2016). International migration, land use change and the environment in Ixcán, Guatemala. Land Use Policy, 54, 290–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. TKİB (2011). Kırsal Kalkınma Planı (2010–2013). Ankara.Google Scholar
  54. TÜİK (2011). Adrese Dayalı Nüfus Kayıt Sistemi Sonuçları. Accessed 8 Mar 2017. http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=10736.
  55. TÜİK (2012). Göstergeler. Accessed 13 May 2017. http://www.tuik.gov.tr/Gosterge
  56. TÜİK (2016). Haber Bülteni. Accessed 13 May 2017. http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=21507.
  57. Ünal, H.E., Birben, Ü., 2016. Rural Development and Forests in Turkey. In Šulek Rastislav, Hrib Michal, Šodková Miroslava (Eds.), 17th International Symposium on Legal Aspects of European Forest Sustainable Development, Prague, Czech Republic, May 18– 20, 2016, (pp. 35-44): Czech University of Life Sciences Prague.Google Scholar
  58. UNFPA (2007). State of the world population. Unleashing the potential of urban growth.Google Scholar
  59. Van Khuc, Q., Tran, B. Q., Meyfroidt, P., & Paschke, M. W. (2018). Drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in Vietnam: an exploratory analysis at the national level. Forest Policy and Economics, 90, 128–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Vitousek, P. M., Mooney, H. A., Lubchenco, J., & Melillo, J. M. (1997). Human domination of earth’s ecosystems. Science, 277(5325), 494–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Walters, B. B. (2016). Migration, land use and forest change in St. Lucia, West Indies. Land Use Policy, 51, 290–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Yakışık, H., & Zülfikar, B. Ş. (2013). 2000 Sonrası Türkiye’de Kırsal ve Kentsel Yoksulluk: Kırsal Yoksullukla Mücadele Uygulama Örnekleri. Çukurova Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 17(2), 424.Google Scholar
  63. Yue, W., Liu, Y., & Fan, P. (2013). Measuring urban sprawl and its drivers in large Chinese cities: the case of Hangzhou. Land Use Policy, 31, 358–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zhang, C., Tian, H., Chen, G., Chappelka, A., Xu, X., Ren, W., Hui, D., Liu, M., Lu, C., Pan, S., & Lockaby, G. (2012). Impacts of urbanization on carbon balance in terrestrial ecosystems of the southern United States. Environmental Pollution, 164, 89–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Forest Engineering, Faculty of ForestryÇankırı Karatekin UniversityÇankırıTurkey

Personalised recommendations