Monitoring the urban green spaces and landscape fragmentation using remote sensing: a case study in Osmaniye, Turkey

  • Murat AtasoyEmail author


Urban green spaces play a significant role in management of physical activity, psychological well-being, and public health of urban residents. With the expansion of urban areas in Turkey during the past decades, urban green spaces have been fragmented and dispersed causing impairment and environmental degradation. The purpose of this study is to model urban green space distribution by focusing on the landscape fragmentation in city of Osmaniye using remote sensing and geographic information system technology. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and urban landscape ratio (ULR) were used to assess the proximity and spatial arrangement of urban green spaces within the neighbor landscapes to quantify the urban land use effect. The geospatial analysis results showed that increase in total built-up area and population has significantly decreased the urban green space cover because of high levels of landscape fragmentation in urban city center. Also, due to high levels of landscape fragmentation, approximately 45% of the Osmaniye city is estimated to become urbanized by 2030. This study demonstrated the benefits of directional vegetation index application with geospatial analyses in characterizing the environmental quality for planning and management of urban green spaces. This approach could be used for determining the future urban land development scenarios correlating with regional planning procedures.


Landscape fragmentation Remote sensing Urban green space Environmental monitoring 



The author would like to thank anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments.


  1. Angel, S., Parent, J., & Civco, D. L. (2012). The fragmentation of urban landscapes: Global evidence of a key attribute of the spatial structure of cities, 1990–2000. Environment and Urbanization, 24(1), 249–283. Scholar
  2. Balram, S., & Dragićević, S. (2005). Attitudes toward urban green spaces: integrating questionnaire survey and collaborative GIS techniques to improve attitude measurements. Landscape and Urban Planning, 71(2–4), 147–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bogaert, J., Van Hecke, P., Eysenrode, D. S. V., & Impens, I. (2000). Landscape fragmentation assessment using a single measure. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 875–881.Google Scholar
  4. Byrne, J. (2012). When green is White: the cultural politics of race, nature and social exclusion in a Los Angeles urban national park. Geoforum, 43(3), 595–611. Scholar
  5. Cushman, S. A. (2006). Effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on amphibians: a review and prospectus. Biological Conservation, 128(2), 231–240. Scholar
  6. Fahrig, L. (2003). Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 34(1), 487–515. Scholar
  7. Forman, R. T. (1995). Some general principles of landscape and regional ecology. Landscape Ecology, 10(3), 133–142. Scholar
  8. Fung, T., & Siu, W. (2000). Environmental quality and its changes, an analysis using NDVI. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 21(5), 1011–1024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Girvetz, E. H., Thorne, J. H., Berry, A. M., & Jaeger, J. A. (2008). Integration of landscape fragmentation analysis into regional planning: a statewide multi-scale case study from California, USA. Landscape and Urban Planning, 86(3–4), 205–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gupta, K., Kumar, P., Pathan, S. K., & Sharma, K. P. (2012). Urban neighborhood green index–a measure of green spaces in urban areas. Landscape and Urban Planning, 105(3), 325–335. Scholar
  11. Jaeger, J. A., Bertiller, R., Schwick, C., Müller, K., Steinmeier, C., Ewald, K. C., & Ghazoul, J. (2008). Implementing landscape fragmentation as an indicator in the Swiss Monitoring System of Sustainable Development (MONET). Journal of Environmental Management, 88(4), 737–751. Scholar
  12. Li, W., Saphores, J. D. M., & Gillespie, T. W. (2015). A comparison of the economic benefits of urban green spaces estimated with NDVI and with high-resolution land cover data. Landscape and Urban Planning, 133, 105–117. Scholar
  13. Llausàs, A., & Nogué, J. (2012). Indicators of landscape fragmentation: the case for combining ecological indices and the perceptive approach. Ecological Indicators, 15(1), 85–91. Scholar
  14. Lwin, K. K., & Murayama, Y. (2011). Modelling of urban green space walkability: eco-friendly walk score calculator. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 35(5), 408–420. Scholar
  15. Mansfield, C., Pattanayak, S. K., McDow, W., McDonald, R., & Halpin, P. (2005). Shades of green: measuring the value of urban forests in the housing market. Journal of Forest Economics, 11(3), 177–199. Scholar
  16. Miller, R. W. (1997). Urban forestry: planning and managing urban green spaces (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  17. Osmaniye Belediyesi (2018). The municipality of Osmaniye City. Retrieved from
  18. Ozyavuz, M., Bilgili, B. C., & Salici, A. (2015). Determination of vegetation changes with NDVI method. Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology, 16(1), 264–273.Google Scholar
  19. Rafiee, R., Mahiny, A. S., & Khorasani, N. (2009). Assessment of changes in urban green spaces of Mashad city using satellite data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 11(6), 431–438. Scholar
  20. Serrano, M., Sanz, L., Puig, J., & Pons, J. (2002). Landscape fragmentation caused by the transport network in Navarra (Spain): two-scale analysis and landscape integration assessment. Landscape and Urban Planning, 58(2–4), 113–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Seto, K. B., Güneralp, B., & Hutyra, L. R. (2015). Global grid of probabilities of urban expansion to 2030. Palisades: NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC). Scholar
  22. Shin, D. H., & Lee, K. S. (2005). Use of remote sensing and geographical information systems to estimate green space surface-temperature change as a result of urban expansion. Landscape and Ecological Engineering, 1(2), 169–176. Scholar
  23. Sister, C., Wolch, J., & Wilson, J. (2010). Got green? Addressing environmental justice in park provision. GeoJournal, 75(3), 229–248. Scholar
  24. Tian, Y., Jim, C. Y., Tao, Y., & Shi, T. (2011). Landscape ecological assessment of green space fragmentation in Hong Kong. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 10(2), 79–86. Scholar
  25. TUIK (2018). Turkish Statistical Institute addressed based population registration system. Retrieved from
  26. Wolch, J. R., Byrne, J., & Newell, J. P. (2014). Urban green space, public health, and environmental justice: the challenge of making cities ‘just green enough’. Landscape and Urban Planning, 125, 234–244. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Architecture, Design, and Fine ArtsOsmaniye Korkut Ata UniversityOsmaniyeTurkey

Personalised recommendations