Origin and distribution of nitrate in water well of settlement areas in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
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Pollution of nitrate in water wells in Yogyakarta City was reported to increase for two decades. This study aimed to describe nitrate contamination in the water wells of colorectal cancer (CRC) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, previously described elsewhere. Nitrate and chloride content of 150 water samples from the wells of patients with CRC and IBD who were residing in Yogyakarta, Sleman, or Bantul districts were examined. Description of nitrate contamination was presented in the form of box plot charts and map. Kruskal-Wallis analysis was used to measure the difference of nitrate concentration in three areas of study. Comparisons of nitrate and chloride concentrations were used to determine the source of nitrate contamination in water well. Fisher’s exact test was used to describe the relationship of well distance with the septic tank to nitrate concentration in water well. The wells in Yogyakarta City had the highest median nitrate content compared to Sleman and Bantul (P = 0.001) with the median of 56.6, 13.1, and 7.7 for Yogyakarta, Sleman, and Bantul, respectively, and most tested samples exceed WHO safe drinking water standards. The spread of nitrate contamination has occurred in areas adjacent to Yogyakarta City compared to the previous report. The ratio of nitrate to chloride (1–8:1) suggested that the source of nitrate contamination in water wells in the study area came from feces due to inadequate on-site sanitation. The mapping showed nitrate contamination in water wells in Yogyakarta City, Sleman, and Bantul districts had spread according to urban development.
KeywordsNitrate Chloride Water well Feces Yogyakarta
We thank the Ministry of Health, Indonesia which has funded a part of this study as part of the doctoral scholarship program; Wadiya Desa Dora, Retno Yulianti, Yuli Patmasari, Banny Suryani, Bobby Jati Dewo and Heri Adiyanto for helping water sample collection; BBTKL-PP/MCEHE-DC Yogyakarta for analyzing nitrate and chloride in samples; Luthfi A. Wahab for map making; Dr. Ir. Sarto, M.Sc., and Dr. Evi Gravitiani, S.E., M.Si. as co-supervisors; Klinik Bahasa Faculty of Medicine Universitas Gadjah Mada for proofreading this manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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