Environmental and hydroclimatic factors influencing Vibrio populations in the estuarine zone of the Bengal delta
The objective of this study was to determine environmental parameters driving Vibrio populations in the estuarine zone of the Bengal delta. Spatio-temporal data were collected at river estuary, mangrove, beach, pond, and canal sites. Effects of salinity, tidal amplitude, and a cyclone and tsunami were included in the study. Vibrio population shifts were found to be correlated with tide-driven salinity and suspended particulate matter (SPM). Increased abundance of Vibrio spp. in surface water was observed after a cyclone, attributed to re-suspension of benthic particulate organic carbon (POC), and increased availability of chitin and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Approximately a two log10 increase in the (p < 0.05) number of Vibrio spp. was observed in < 20 μm particulates, compared with microphytoplankton (20–60 μm) and zooplankton > 60 μm fractions. Benthic and suspended sediment comprised a major reservoir of Vibrio spp. Results of microcosm experiments showed enhanced growth of vibrios was related to concentration of organic matter in SPM. It is concluded that SPM, POC, chitin, and salinity significantly influence abundance and distribution of vibrios in the Bengal delta estuarine zone.
KeywordsVibrio Salinity Cyclone Tide Chitin Sediment dynamics
We appreciate the technical support of the environmental surveillance team of icddr,b. We also acknowledge the kind assistance of Professor Anwar Huq, University of Maryland, for reviewing the manuscript and providing advice. Thoughtful suggestions received from Prodyot Kumar Basu Neogi, ex-scientist of icddr,b, are gratefully remembered. icddr,b is thankful to the Governments of Bangladesh, Canada, Sweden, and the UK for providing core/unrestricted support.
This research was supported by the ZMT, Bremen (Grant No. LA 868/5-1 from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Federal Ministry of Economic Corporation and Development, Germany), Osaka Prefecture University (Monbukagakusho: MEXT Scholarship Program), the Johns Hopkins University and the University of Maryland (National Institutes of Health Grant No. 2RO1A1039129-11A2).
- Akanda, A. S., Jutla, A. S., Gute, D. M., Sack, R. B., Alam, M., Huq, A., Colwell, R. R., & Islam, S. (2013). Population vulnerability to biannual cholera outbreaks and associated macro-scale drivers in the Bengal Delta. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 89, 950–959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Batabyal, P., Einsporn, M. H., Mookerjee, S., Palit, A., Neogi, S. B., Nair, G. B., & Lara, R. J. (2014). Influence of hydrologic and anthropogenic factors on the abundance variability of enteropathogens in the Ganges estuary, a cholera endemic region. Science of the Total Environment, 472, 154–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Colwell, R. R., Seidler, R. J., Kaper, J., Joseph, S. W., Garges, S., Lockman, H., et al. (1981). Occurrence of Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 in Maryland and Louisiana estuaries. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 41, 555–558.Google Scholar
- Constantin de Magny, G., Mozumder, P. K., Grim, C. J., Hasan, N. A., Naser, M. N., Alam, M., et al. (2011). Role of zooplankton diversity in Vibrio cholerae population dynamics and in the incidence of cholera in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77, 6125–6132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cruz, R. V., Harasawa, H., Lal, M., Wu, S., Anokhin, Y., Punsalmaa, B., et al. (2007). Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability, chapter 10: Asia (working group II). In M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, & C. E. Hanson (Eds.), Fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (pp. 469–506). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Darby, S. E., Dunn, F. E., Nicholls, R. J., Rahman, M., & Riddya, L. (2015). A first look at the influence of anthropogenic climate change on the future delivery of fluvial sediment to the Ganges–Brahmaputra–Meghna delta. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 17, 1587–1600.Google Scholar
- Glöckner, F. O., Fuchs, B. M., & Amann, R. (1999). Bacterioplankton compositions of lakes and oceans: a first comparison based on fluorescence in situ hybridization. Environmental Microbiology, 65, 3721–3726.Google Scholar
- Haldar, S., Neogi, S. B., Kogure, K., Chatterjee, S., Chowdhury, N., Hinenoya, A., et al. (2010). Development of a haemolysin gene-based multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Vibrio campbellii, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 50, 146–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Johnson, C. N., Bowers, J. C., Griffitt, K. J., Molina, V., Clostio, R. W., Pei, S., et al. (2012). Ecology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in the coastal and estuarine waters of Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, and Washington (United States). Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78, 7249–7257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Julie, D., Solen, L., Antoine, V., Jaufrey, C., Annick, D., & Dominique, H. H. (2010). Ecology of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus on the French Atlantic coast. Effects of temperature, salinity, turbidity and chlorophyll a. Environmental Microbiology, 12, 929–937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Neogi, S. B., Chowdhury, N., Asakura, M., Hinenoya, A., Haldar, S., Saidi, S. M., Kogure, K., et al. (2010). A highly sensitive and specific multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 51, 293–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rizvi, S., Huq, M. I., & Benenson, S. (1965). Isolation of hemagglutinative non-El Tor cholera vibrios. Journal of Bacteriology, 89, 910–912.Google Scholar
- Roszak, D. B., & Colwell, R. R. (1987). Survival strategies of bacteria in the natural environment. Microbiological Reviews, 51, 365–379.Google Scholar
- Tamplin, M. L., Gauzens, A. L., Huq, A., Sack, D. A., & Colwell, R. R. (1990). Attachment of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 to zooplankton and phytoplankton of Bangladesh waters. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 56, 1977–1980.Google Scholar
- Vezzulli, L., Grande, C., Reid, P. C., Hélaouët, P., Edwards, M., Höfle, M. G., Brettar, I., Colwell, R. R., & Pruzzo, C. (2016). Climate influence on Vibrio and associated human diseases during the past half-century in the coastal North Atlantic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 113, E5062–E5071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Williams, L. A., & Larock, P. A. (1985). Temporal occurrence of Vibrio species and Aeromonas hydrophila in estuarine sediments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 50, 1490–1495.Google Scholar