Seasonal prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the river Mula-Mutha, India
The river Mula-Mutha in Pune District, India, is linked to a number of major drinking water sources in villages situated along its banks. This study assessed the seasonal variations in bacteriological water quality along the Mula-Mutha river using Thermotolerant Faecal Coliforms (TFC) as indicator bacteria for faecal contamination as per the WHO standard guidelines for drinking water. Eight points were chosen based on a survey carried out focusing on different sources of contamination which may influence water quality. Based on the survey of antibiotics used to treat routine diseases and ailments in villages, ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin were selected to screen and enumerate antibiotic-resistant (AR) TFC. The water samples were collected and analyzed along the Mula-Mutha riverbank in three seasons. The highest TFC load was recorded during the monsoon at all eight sampling points. The percentages of ciprofloxacin-resistant TFC among the TFC isolated in post-monsoon, pre-monsoon and monsoon were 21%, 2.3%, and 64%, to those resistant to ceftazidime 9%, 0.5%, and 36% and to the combination 38%, 0.7%, and 43%, respectively. Downstream from Manjari, at Khamgaontek, antibiotic-resistant TFC were detected in all three seasons though the number isolated was less. Still further downstream at Walki, the numbers decreased considerably. The findings highlighted the heavy load of AR TFC detected in the river Mula-Mutha at points adjoining Pune City. This was probably due to the release of domestic and hospital wastes from the city into the river.
KeywordsMula-Mutha Thermotolerant Faecal Coliforms Ciprofloxacin Ceftazidime
The authors thank Dr. Nerges Mistry and Dr. Isabel Seifert-Dahn for their suggestions and comments during undertaking of the study and preparation of the manuscript.
Rutuja Dhawde, Dr. Tannaz Birdi and Dr. Ragini Macaden defined the sampling and analysis framework. Rutuja Dhawde did the bacteriological analysis and analyzed the data. Rutuja Dhawde wrote the paper with major contributions from Dr. Ragini Macaden and Dr. Tannaz Birdi. Appasaheb Ghadge carried out water sampling on the field.
This work is financially supported by the Research Council of Norway (Project No. 216064/E10), Norway.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The project 216064/E10 does not involve medical or health-related research. The Norwegian National Research Ethics Committee (NENT) is responsible for assessing and judging any possible transgressions in this area. The follow-up of research ethics is also covered internally as part of our ISO 9001 certification and processes. NENT has confirmed that no application for ethical approval is required.
- BIS. (2009). Draft Indian standard drinking water – specification. New Delhi: Bureau of Indian Standards.Google Scholar
- Bitton, G. (2005). Microbial indicators of faecal contamination: application to microbial source tracking. Gainesville: Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida.Google Scholar
- Census. (2011). Pune City Census 2011 data. https://www.census2011.co.in/census/city/375-pune.html. Accessed 22 Feb 2017.
- Chabba, A. P. S. (2013). Water-borne diseases in India. https://in.reset.org/blog/water-borne-diseases-india. Accessed 22 Feb 2017.
- Chakrabarty, S., & Sarma, H. P. (2011). Climatic variables and its implications in ground water potability in Kamrup district, Assam, India. Archives of Applied Science Research, 3(5), 265–272.Google Scholar
- Chandanshive, N. (2013). The seasonal fluctuation of physico-chemical parameters of river Mula-Mutha at Pune, India and their impact on fish biodiversity. Research Journal of Animal, Veterinary and Fishery Sciences, 1(1), 11–16.Google Scholar
- Das, B. (2009). India’s water resources availability, usage and problems. http://base.d-p-h.info/fr/fiches/dph/fiche-dph-7825.html. Accessed 5 Feb 2017.
- GOI. (2016). Water-borne diseases rise in Maharashtra. Media Scanning & Verification Cell. Maharashtra: Media Scanning & Verification Cell, Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme, National Centre for Disease Control of Government of India.Google Scholar
- Gurav, A. (2010). Reclaim the river Pune, Maharashtra, India. Göteborg: Chalmers University of Technology.Google Scholar
- JDHS. (2014). Water borne diseases. https://arogya.maharashtra.gov.in/Site/Uploads/Category/Water_Borne_Diseases.pdf. Accessed 5 Feb 2017.
- Kolarević, S., Knežević-Vukčević, J., Paunović, M., Gačić, Z., & Vuković-Gačić, B. (2011). Assessment of the microbiological quality of the river Tisa in Serbia. Water Research and Management, 1(2), 57–61.Google Scholar
- Kosh, J. S. (2018). Health facilities in district Pune, Maharashtra. New Delhi: District wise Health Facility Data.Google Scholar
- Loharkar, N., Keche, Y., Yegnanarayan, R., Dharma, M., Bhosale, A., & Makan, A. (2013). Self-medication use in urban population of Pune, Maharashtra, India. Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences, 1(6), 732–738.Google Scholar
- McManus, P. S., & Stockwell, V. O. (2001). Antibiotic use for plant disease management in the United States. Peach, 2(5), 2,900.Google Scholar
- Mulani, M. S., Azhar, S., Azharuddin, S., & Tambe, S. (2015). Harnessing the power of bacteriophage for pathogen reduction in wastewater. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 152–161.Google Scholar
- Pradhan, A. (2016). Pune plans more STPs while existing plants under perform and there is no attempt to fix them. India: South Asia Network on Dams, Rivers and People.Google Scholar
- Purohit, B. C. (2012). Health impact of water borne diseases and regional disparities in India. International Journal of Health Sciences and Research, 2(1), 135–152.Google Scholar
- Sahu, R., & Saxena, P. (2014). Antibiotics in chicken meat. New Delhi: Centre for Science and Environment.Google Scholar
- Tambekar, D., Ansingkar, V., Tambekar, S., & Banginwar, Y. (2008). Microbial source tracking through antibiotics resistance profile for detection of faecal pollution in water. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 4(11), 1496–1501.Google Scholar
- WHO. (2001). Water quality: guidelines, standards and health (indicators of microbial water quality). Geneva: World Health Organisation.Google Scholar