Bioaccumulation process and health risk assessment of toxic elements in tomato fruit grown under Zn nutrition treatment
- 159 Downloads
The aim of this work was to determine elements composition and bioaccumulation process in ripe tomato fruits influenced by zinc feeding of plants which was applied in three different doses. Macro- and microelement content in growing soil, seeds, and fruits was determined by ICP-OES method. Health risk assessment was calculated according to the presence of some toxic elements. It was found that predominant macroelements were phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium followed by other ten determined elements. The presence of five potentially toxic elements (cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and strontium) in seed and fruits was detected. Bioaccumulation differences (especially in case of potassium) for some elements in seed and fruit were established. In both cases, calcium and lead were the only elements with antagonistic effect towards zinc feeding process. Health risk assessment has shown that acute risk is low for all toxic elements (according to acute hazard quotient (HQ) calculation) except for cadmium in fruit seed, where it can be characterized as moderate. Long-term hazard quotient calculation showed moderate risk in the case of lead (fruit skin and seed) and low values for other toxic elements. Since the most part of toxic elements was accumulated in tomato fruit skin and seed, peeling of fruits can significantly reduce health risk.
KeywordsLycopersicon esculentum Мill. Plant nutrition Accumulation of elements Acute hazard quotient Long-term hazard quotient
We are grateful to the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development for providing Grant TR 31003 for this study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Agrawal, B., Shrivastava, A., & Harmukh, N. (2010). Effect of irrigation methods and micronutrients on nutrient uptake of tomato F1 hybrid avinash-2. International Journal of Current Trends in Science and Technology, 1(1), 20–26.Google Scholar
- Alloway, B. J. (2008). Fundamental aspects of zinc in soil and plants. In Zinc in soils and crop nutrition (pp. 14–30). Brussels: International Fertilizer Industry Association and International Zinc Association.Google Scholar
- Egner, H., Riehm, H., & Domingo, W. (1960). Untersuchungen über die shemische Bodenanalyse als Grundlage für die Beurteilung des Nährstoffzustandes der Böden. II. Chemische Extraktions methoden zur Phosphor und Kalimbestimmung. K. Lantbrukshoegskolans Annaler, 26, 199–215.Google Scholar
- JEFCA. (2011). Working document for information and use in discussions related to contaminants and toxins in the GSCTFF, The fifth session of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Contaminants in Food, The Hague, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
- Johnson, G. V., & Fixen, P. E. (1990). Testing soils for sulfur, boron, molybdenum, and chlorine. In R. L. Westerman (Ed.), Soil testing and plant analysis (pp. 265–273). Madison: WI SSSA.Google Scholar
- Kabata-Pendias, A. (2011). Trace elements in soil and plants. LLC, UK: Taylor and Francis Group.Google Scholar
- Kastori, R. (1990). Neophodni mikroelementi; fizološka uloga i značaj u biljnoj proizvodnji (Essential micronutrients; physiological role and importance in plant production). Beograd: Naučna knjiga (In Serbian).Google Scholar
- Lima, E. C., Nardi, L. V. S., Pereira, V. P., Bastos Neto, A. C., & Vedana, L. A. (2014). Evaluation of biological absorption coefficient of trace elements in plants from the Pitinga mine district, Amazonian region. Revista do Instituto Geológico, 35(1), 19–29.Google Scholar
- Marschner, P. (1995). Mineral nutrition of higher plants (second ed.). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Ltd.Google Scholar
- Martens, D. C., & Westerman, D. T. (1991). Fertilizer applications for correcting micronutrient deficiencies. In J. J. Mortvedt, F. R. Cox, L. M. Schuman, & R. M. Welch (Eds.), Micronutrients in agriculture (pp. 549–592). Madison: Soil Science Society of America.Google Scholar
- Memon, M., Jamro, G. M., Memon, N. U. N., Memon, K. S., & Akhtar, S. M. (2012). Micronutrient availability assessment of tomato grown in Taluka Badin, Sidh. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 44(2), 649–654.Google Scholar
- Nazir, A., Malik, R. N., Ajaib, M., Khan, N., & Siddiqui, M. F. (2011). Hyperaccumulators of heavy metals of industrial areas of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 43(4), 1925–1933.Google Scholar
- Pavlovic, J., Samardzic, J., Maksimovic, V., Timotijevic, G., Stevic, N., Laursen, K., Hanese, T., Søren Husted, S., Schjoerring, J., Liang, Y., & Nikolic, M. (2013). Silicon alleviates iron deficiency in cucumber by promoting mobilization of iron in the root apoplast. New Phytologist, 198(4), 1096–1107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Peganova, S., & Edler, K. (2004). Zinc. In E. Merian, M. Anke, M. Ihnat, M. Stoeppler (Eds.), Elements and their compounds in the environment (pp. 1203–1239) 2nd ed. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.Google Scholar
- Popović-Djordjević, J., Bokan, N., Dramićanin, A., Brčeski, I., & Kostić, A. (2017). Content and weekly intake of essential and toxic elements in Serbian vegetables. Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology, 18(3), 889–898.Google Scholar
- Prasad, A. S. (2008). Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells. Molecular Medicine, 14(5–6), 353–357.Google Scholar
- US EPA (2005). Risk-based Concentration Table, April 2005. United States Environmental Protection Agency, RfD (mg/kg bw/day). Region 3, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
- Vlahović, B., Tomić, D., & Andrić, N. (2011). Consumption of vegetables in Serbia - a comparative approach. 45th Congress of Agronomists of Serbia, Zlatibor, Serbia. (in Serbian). http://www.nsseme.com/about/inc/SAS/45SAS/2011-02-01/11%20Vlahovic.pdf. Accessed 25 September 2017.
- WHO (2010). Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 77 – Strontium and Strontium Compounds. pp. 1–70. http://www.inchem.org/documents/cicads/cicads/cicad77.pdf