Responses of the zooplankton community to peak and waning periods of El Niño 2015–2016 in Kavaratti reef ecosystem, northern Indian Ocean
- 94 Downloads
The study addressed the impact of the El Niño 2015–2016 on the ecosystem functioning and the subsequent effects on the distribution and community structure of zooplankton in the Kavaratti reef, a prominent coral atoll in the tropical Indian Ocean. The elevated ocean temperature (SST) associated with El Niño resulted in a mass bleaching event affecting > 60% of the live corals of the Kavaratti atoll. The concomitant changes observed in the nutrient concentration, coral health, and phytoplankton of the reef environment during the course of the El Niño led to discernible variations in the zooplankton community with markedly higher abundance and heterogeneity in distribution during the peak period of El Niño compared to its waning phase. A notable shift was also evident in the community structure of Copepoda, the dominant zooplankton taxon, with a predominance of calanoids and poecilostomatoids in the peak period and by harpacticoid copepods in the waning phase of the El Niño. The harpacticoid, Macrosetella gracilis, dominated in the waning phase because of their unique adaptability in the utilization of Trichodesmium erythraeum, both as nutritional and physical substrates in the nutrient-depleted environment of the reef ecosystem.
KeywordsEl Niño Ecosystem functioning Macrosetella gracilis Coral bleaching Trichodesmium erythraeum
Our sincere thanks to CSIR-NIO, CMFRI, and DST, Lakshadweep for the facilities provided. KKK is thankful to CSIR for a post-doctoral fellowship. This is NIO contribution 6260.
This research program was supported by the Institutional project OLP 1210 of CSIR-NIO.
- Achuthankutty, C. T., Nair, S. R., Haridas, P., & Madhupratap, M. (1989). Zooplankton composition of the Kalpeni and Agatti atolls, Lakshadweep archipelago. Indian Journal of Marine Science, 18, 151–154.Google Scholar
- Arthur, R. (2000). Coral bleaching and mortality in three Indian reef regions during an El Niño southern oscillation event. Current Science, 79, 1723–1729.Google Scholar
- Barton, B. A., Morgan, J. D., Vijayan, M. M., & Adams, S. M. (2002). Physiological and condition-related indicators of environmental stress in fish. In S. M. Adams (Ed.), Biological indicators of aquatic ecosystem stress (pp. 111–148). Bethesda: American Fisheries Society.Google Scholar
- Bjӧrnberg, T. K. S. (1965). Observations on the development and the biology of the Miracidae Dana (Copepoda: Crustacea). Bulletin of Marine Science, 15, 512–520.Google Scholar
- Bӧttger-Schnack, R., & Schnack, D. (1989). Vertical distribution and population structure of Macrosetella gracilis (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) in the Red Sea in relation to the occurrence of Oscillatoria (Trichodesmium) spp (Cyanobacteria). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 52, 17–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Clarke, K. R., & Gorley, R. N. (2015). PRIMER v7: user manual/tutorial. Plymouth: PRIMER-E.Google Scholar
- Clifford, H. T., & Stephensen, W. (1975). An introduction to numerical classification. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Conway, D. V. P., White, R. G., Hugues-Dit-Ciles, J., Gallienne, C. P., & Robins, D. B. (2003). Guide to the coastal and surface zooplankton of the South-Western Indian Ocean. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.Google Scholar
- Eakin, M. (2016). Outlook on coral bleaching: El Niño, the guest overstaying his welcome. Presentation in 35 Meeting Washington DC, February, 2016. https://www.coralreef.gov/meeting35/pdf/7_2016_Outlook_on_Coral_Bleaching.
- Glynn, P. W., Mones, A. B., Podestá, G. P., Colbert, A., & Colgan, M. W. (2017). El Niño-Southern Oscillation: Effects on Eastern Pacific coral reefs and associated biota. In P. W. Glynn, D. P. Manzello, & I. C. Enochs (Eds.), Coral reefs of the Eastern Tropical Pacific (pp. 251–290). Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Grasshoff, K. (1983). Determination of oxygen. In K. Grasshoff, M. Ehrhardt, & K. Kremling (Eds.), Methods of sea water analysis (pp. 61–72). Weinheim: Verlag Chemie.Google Scholar
- Hagen, W. (2000). Biovolume and biomass determinations. In R. Harris, P. Wiebe, J. Lenz, H. R. Skjoldal, & M. E. Huntley (Eds.), ICES zooplankton methodology manual (pp. 87–147). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Haridas, P., & Madhupratap, M. (1977). Acartia dweepi, a new species of copepod (Acartidae, galanoida) from Lakshadweep. Current Science, 47, 176–177.Google Scholar
- Harris, R., Wiebe, P., Lenz, J., Skjoldal, H. R., & Huntley, M. E. (Eds.). (2000). ICES zooplankton methodology manual. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Hecky, R. E., & Kilham, P. (1988). Nutrient limitation of phytoplankton in freshwater and marine environments: a review of recent evidence on the effects of enrichment. Limnology and Oceanography, 33, 796–822.Google Scholar
- James, P. S. B. R. (2011). The Lakshadweep: islands of ecological fragility, environmental sensitivity and anthropogenic vulnerability. Journal of Coastal Environment, 2, 9–25.Google Scholar
- Kämpf, J., & Chapman, P. (2016). Upwelling systems of the world. A scientific journey to the most productive marine ecosystem. Switzerland: Springer.Google Scholar
- Karati, K. K., Vineetha, G., Madhu, N. V., Anil, P., Dayana, M., Shihab, B. K., Muhsin, A. I., Riyas, C., & Raveendran, T. V. (2017). Variability in the phytoplankton community of Kavaratti reef ecosystem (northern Indian Ocean) during peak and waning periods of El Niño 2016. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 189, 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kelley, R. (2009). Indo Pacific coral finder. See www.byoguides.com.
- Muraleedharan, P. M., & Prasannakumar, S. (1996). Arabian Sea upwelling—a comparison between coastal and open ocean regions. Current Science, 71, 842–846.Google Scholar
- Seckbach, J., & Kociolek, J. P. (Eds.). (2011). The diatom world. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- SenGupta, R., Mores, C., Kureishy, T. W., Sankaranarayanan, V. N., Jana, T. K., Naqvi, S. W. A., & Rajagopal, M. D. (1979). Chemical oceanography of the Arabian Sea: part IV—Laccadive Sea. Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences, 8, 215–221.Google Scholar
- Sewell, R. B. S. (1999). The copepod of Indian seas. India: Daya Books.Google Scholar
- Tomas, C. R. (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Trenberth, K. E., Branstator, G. W., Karoly, D., Kumar, A., Lau, N. C., & Ropelewski, C. (1998). Progress during TOGA in understanding and modeling global teleconnections associated with tropical sea surface temperatures. Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, 103(C7), 14291–14324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vijay Anand, P. E., & Pillai, N. G. K. (2007). Coral reef fish abundance and diversity of seagrass beds in Kavaratti atoll, Lakshadweep, India. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 54, 11–20.Google Scholar
- Warwick, R. M., Clarke, K. R., & Somerfield, P. J. (2008). k-Dominance curves. In S. E. Jørgensen & B. D. Fath (Eds.), Ecological indicators. 3, encyclopedia of ecology, 5 (pp. 2055–2057). Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar