A comparison of the antioxidant activities and biomonitoring of heavy metals by pollen in the urban environments

  • İlginç Kızılpınar Temizer
  • Aytaç Güder
  • Fulya Aydın TemelEmail author
  • Esin AVCI


Pollen is one of the most valuable nutrients due to its content and antioxidant activity. In this study, its botanic origin, total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), the hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity (HPSA) (in terms of SC50), ferric reducing antioxidant power capacity (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (in terms of SC50), metal-chelating activity (MCA) (%), and heavy metal content were examined to determine the quality of pollen that has been collected from seven different cities of Turkey. According to the melissopalynological analysis, the botanic origin of samples is six uni-flora and one multiflora. The TPC, TFC, HPSA, FRAP, DPPH, and MCA were found between 1360.70–2981.34 mg GAE/100 g, 74.23–111.74 mg CAE/100 g, 25.56–30.28 μg/mL, 71.92–73.86%, 52.26–53.27 μg/mL, and 43.97–65.21%, respectively. When obtained results compared to the standards (Butylated Hydroxy Anisole (BHA), Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT) and α-Tocopherol (TOC)), pollen samples showed the effective antioxidant properties with respect to HPSA, FRAP, and DPPH radical scavenging activity. In addition, it was observed that honey samples were being contaminated with most of the metals to some extent (Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, B, As, Te, U), while some heavy metals (Co, Cd, V, Ga, and Ag) were never determined in all samples. However, Pb was determined only in sample 2 and sample 4, Mo in sample 1 and sample 2. According to meteorological parameters, samples 3, 4, and 5 were distinguished from the other samples. Finally, the data indicate that pollen could be affected by environmental pollutions.


Antioxidant activity Melissopalynological analysis Pollen Heavy metal Biomonitoring 



The authors thank the Giresun University for providing the opportunity to research. The authors are grateful to Feyza Çolakoğlu from the University of Sidney for their kind help with the English language. The authors wish to extend our thanks to the English-editing-service of Turkey.

Funding information

This work was financed by a scholarship of the Giresun University for support of Scientific/Technological Research (FEN-BAP-A-140316-80).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Vocational High School of Health Services, Program of Emergency and First AidGiresun UniversityGiresunTurkey
  2. 2.Engineering Faculty, Department of Environmental EngineeringGiresun UniversityGiresunTurkey
  3. 3.Science and Art Faculty, Department of StatisticsGiresun UniversityGiresunTurkey

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