In situ generation of hydroxyl radical for efficient degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol from aqueous solutions

  • Saeid AhmadzadehEmail author
  • Maryam DolatabadiEmail author


Since 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) as a priority pollutant is used in numerous industrial processes, its removal from the aqueous environment is of utmost importance and desire. Herein, the authors describe an electrochemical treatment process for efficient removal of 2,4-DCP from aqueous solutions using electro-Fenton (EF) process. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the operating parameters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed the significance of the predicted model. The effect of independent variables on the removal of 2,4-DCP was investigated and the best removal efficiency of 98.28% achieved under the optimal experimental condition including initial pH of 3, H2O2 dosage of 80 μL, initial 2,4-DCP concentration of 3.25 mg L−1, current density of 3.32 mA cm−2, and inter-electrode distance of 5.04 cm. The predicted removal efficiency was in satisfactory agreement with the obtained experimental removal efficiency of 99.21%. According to the obtained polynomial model, H2O2 dosage revealed the most significant effect on degradation process. The kinetic investigation revealed that the first-order model with the correlation coefficient of 0.9907 and rate constant (Kapp) of 0.831 min−1 best fitted with the experimental results. Generation of the hydroxyl radicals throughout the EF process controlled the degradation process.


Electro-Fenton process Hydroxyl radical 2,4-Dichlorophenol Response surface methodology Kinetic model 



The authors express their appreciation to Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology and Student Research Committee both affiliated to Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran for supporting the current work.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of NeuropharmacologyKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  2. 2.Student Research CommitteeKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran

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